In the 20th year of Jian’an (215), Sun Quan took advantage of Cao Cao’s use of troops in Hanzhong and personally led a large army to Hefei. In this battle, the elite of the eastern Wu were exhausted, and 100000 troops were defeated by 7000 garrisons of Zhang Liao. Even Sun Quan himself was almost captured by Cao Jun. fortunately, Lai Lingtong, Gan Ning, Lu Meng and others fought hard to escape. The battle of Xiaoyaojin in Hefei was the most brilliant work of Zhang Liao’s life. The romance says that “this time, everyone in the south of the Yangtze River was afraid of killing him. Hearing his name, children dare not cry at night”, which can be called a classic example of defensive tactics.
1? The importance of Hefei in military strategy Hu’s annotation in Zizhi Tongjian cites the annotation of the water classics: “Feishui flows out of the west of Guangyang Township, Chengde County, Jiujiang River, and into shaopi in the northwest. From shaopi, water is applied to Hefei. Feishui flows north through Shouchun county and into the Huaihe river.” the summer water rises sharply and is applied to Feihe, so it is called Hefei. “. Hefei connects the Huaihe River in the north and reaches the Yangtze River in the south. It has a strategic position of “the right throat of the Huaihe River and the lips and teeth of the south of the Yangtze River”. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was an important military place in the Cao Wei period.
1. In terms of defense, the Wei Dynasty set Hefei in the East, Xiangyang in the middle and Qi Mountain in the West. Hefei is located in the important area of Huainan, which is not only beneficial to garrison the fields and garrison the border, but also convenient for Sun Wu to take the road of Xu Yang to the north. Sun Quan repeatedly attacked Hefei, hoping to push forward the front line. He took Hefei as the North barrier and Chaohu Lake as the naval base. If necessary, he could let the naval forces enter the Huaihe River north to attack Wei.
2. On the offensive, Hefei controls Chaohu Lake in the South and looks at Jianye in the distance, which can pose a threat to Soochow. Cao Wei could at any time transfer water troops from the Huaihe River to Chaohu Lake for assembly and preparation, and then enter the Yangtze River from Rushu to attack Wu. The eastern Wu had to build a dock with water at the mouth of Ru Xu to prevent the Wei Dynasty from going south into the river.
3. Strategically, Cao Cao sent troops from yuechao Lake in Hefei to the south from time to time to control the troops and attention of the eastern Wu for a long time, so as to ensure the peace of most areas along the Yangtze River. Wei and Wu borders thousands of miles, and for more than a decade, only one corner of this corner has been fought. This is the reason.
Due to the importance of Hefei, the Wei and Wu countries successively launched several wars here, and the flames of war spread throughout Hefei, Ru Xu and other places. When Cao Wei went south, wushouru had to refuse; Sun Wu went north and Wei guarded Hefei.
2? The military situation before the battle
In the 16th year of Jian’an, Sun Quan, following the advice of Zhang Zhen, a long history, moved his administrative office from Jingkou West to moling, where mountains and rivers were shaped like victory, built a stone city and renamed Jianye. At the same time, Lu Meng persuaded Sun Quan to build a fortress at the mouth of the water with the excuse that “the soldiers are sharp and blunt, and there is no victory in the war. If there is an encounter, the enemy will ride into the water and have no time to reach the water.”.
In the 18th year of Jian’an, Cao Cao attacked Ru Xu. Sun Quan resisted him for more than a month. Although each had a small victory, it was difficult for him to do anything. Cao Cao had to sigh that “having children should be like sunzhongmou” and withdrew from the army. On the one hand, he stationed 7000 people, including Zhang Liao, lejin and Li Dian, in Hefei. On the other hand, he sent Zhu guangtun to Anhui and opened up rice fields. However, at the beginning, Cao Cao’s army was preparing for the border area, and he was afraid that the counties and counties along the river would be neglected by the power. He did not listen to Jiang Ji’s persuasion that “he broke Yuan Shao, pulled Liu city to the north, headed south to Jianghan, and Jingzhou crossed the arms, which shocked the world, and the people had no other aspirations. However, the people cherished the land, and were not happy to move, and fear would make them uneasy.” as a result, more than 100000 people between the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River were shocked to leave Wu. As a result, “Jiangxi was empty”, and the city of Anhui was actually an isolated city. In the 19th year of Jian’an, Sun Quan accepted LV Meng’s suggestion that “Anhui is a fertile land. If one harvests it, all the people will increase. If he is several years old, he will see his behavior, and it is better to get rid of it as soon as possible”. He led a large army to conquer Anhui. LV Meng recommended Ganning to be promoted as the city governor. The governor made an urgent attack. In the first World War, he won the title of Prefecture governor Zhu Guang and Dong He, who joined the army, and tens of thousands of men and women. When Zhang Liao led his troops to rescue him, he heard that the city had been pulled out and retreated.
In July of the same year, Cao Cao knew that the city of Anhui had been defeated. Despite the remonstrances of Jia Kui, Fugan and others, he raised the army again to fight in person. However, “the men and horses could not show off their abilities, and the strange changes had no use for their power” and “the army was useless” (there is no record in the history of this war). Cao Cao began to realize that it was better to return to the West and take Zhang Lu than to stick to it.
In the 20th year of Jian’an, Liu Bei decided to establish Shu. Sun Quan ordered zhugejin to ask for the counties in Jingzhou. Of course, Liu Bei did not allow it. Guan Yu did his best to appoint three prefectures. Sun Quan was so angry that he sent LV Meng to attack and seize Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang, so that Lu Su could garrison Bachu with thousands of people to control Guanyu and live in the Lukou, so as to save the lives of all the troops. When Liu Bei heard of it, he personally mentioned that 50000 troops had been sent to the Public Security Bureau, and sent Guan Yu to Yiyang to fight for three counties. The first battle broke out. At that time, Cao Cao’s troops came to Hanzhong, fearing the loss of beneficial States, and made envoys seek peace. Sun Liu divided Jingzhou and re formed the old alliance.
In this way, the eastern Wu and the Western Wu had nothing to do, so Sun Quan turned his eyes to Hefei on the eastern line.
3? The course of the campaign
In the 20th year of Jian’an, Sun Quan personally led 100000 troops to attack Hefei. His generals included Lvmeng, Ganning, Lingtong, Jiang Qin, pan Zhang, Chen Wu, He Qi, Xusheng, lvfan, songqian, etc; However, there are only 7000 garrisons in Hefei, including Zhang Liao, lejin, Li Dian and the guard Xue ti. The main force of Cao’s army is far away in Guanzhong, unable to go to the aid, and the military strength is very different.
1. Cold heart and soul.
Long before Cao Cao attacked Zhang and Lu in the west, he gave a secret instruction to Xue Ti, the guard, with the words “when thieves arrive, they will be sent”. Now that the Wu army really went north, Zhang Liao, Le Jin, Li Dian and Xue Tianai sent a letter to see the teaching, and the teaching order wrote: “if Sun Quan arrives, general Zhang and Li will go to war, general le will guard, and the guards will not fight.”. However, all generals doubted whether it was the best policy to separate troops and go to war. Only Zhang Liao understood Cao Cao’s intentions. He said: “the public expedition is outside, and if they are saved, they will destroy me. It is based on the teachings and their uncoordinated counter attacks, so as to break their momentum, so as to calm the hearts of the people, and then they can defend it.” lejin and others hesitated. Zhang Liao angrily said: “the chance of success or failure, in this war, you have no doubt.” Li diansu was not at peace with Zhang Liao, but was moved by his spirit of resolutely fighting the enemy. He said with regret: “this is a national event. How can you care? I can regret it privately and forget justice! Please come out from you.”. Therefore, Zhang Liao “raised people who dared to follow at night, got 800 people, and rewarded the soldiers with vertebrate cattle” to prepare for tomorrow’s war.
In the early morning of the next day, Zhang Liao and 800 dead soldiers entered the array where Sun Quan had just arrived. Liao was held by a halberd. He first boarded Chen, killed dozens of people, killed two generals, shouted his name and rushed directly under Sun Quan. Seeing the ferocity of the Liao Dynasty, Quan was so frightened that he was at a loss about what to do, so he had to climb the mound and defend himself with a long halberd. Liao chided his power and dared not move his power. Seeing that there were few generals in Liao, he gathered around Liao for several times. Liao left and right surrounded the army, attacked the encirclement directly, and captured dozens of people under his command. Yu Zhong shouted, “why do you abandon me?” Liao Fu broke through the encirclement and pulled out Yu Zhong. All powerful people are invincible, and no one dares to do so. From the early days of the war to the middle of the day, the Wu people seized Qi. Liao and other generals were still on guard, and the hearts of the people were at peace. All generals admired them very much.
2. Stick to the city.
The eastern Wu army gathered and immediately launched a siege. However, due to the victory of the first battle of the Wei army, the morale of the army was greatly boosted, while the spirit of the Wu army suddenly lost. In addition, the Hefei fortification was very perfect and solid under the active preparation of the former Yangzhou Governor Liu Fu. Tens of thousands of troops of the eastern Wu had been besieged for more than ten days. It was estimated that the battle situation and the degree of tragedy were comparable to haozhaoshou and Chencang. Sun Quan was unable to attack for a long time, and the disease was prevalent in the army. He had to look at the city and sigh, and withdrew his troops.
3. Blood is cheap and free.
Wu’s army led troops to the road according to the order. When the public left, only Sun Quan, Lvmeng, jiangqin, Lingtong and Ganning led more than a thousand tiger soldiers under the car. They were still in the north of Xiaoyao Jinbei to the east of Hefei. Zhang Liao looked at it from gaota, and immediately led a surprise attack with Li Dian and Le Jin. Sun Quan saw the situation as bad. “If we chase back the former soldiers, the soldiers will go far away, and the situation is not matched.”.
The situation was urgent. Ling Tong led close to 300 people and fell into the encirclement. Gan Ning drew his bow and shot at the enemy. The generals fought together. They found that the morale of the troops was low. “Ning asked why they didn’t do it, and was determined.” the morale of the Wu army was boosted. In the fierce battle, chenwufen ordered him to die. Songqian and Xusheng were both killed. When pan Zhang was “in the second place, he rushed forward and killed both Qianqian and Sheng soldiers. Both soldiers returned to the war”. Ling Tong helped Sun Quan out, and he rode on a horse to the Jin Bridge. The enemy had destroyed the bridge, and the south of Jin had seen a full penetration. When he was close to Jian Guli, he was behind the Quan Ma and “made the right to hold the saddle and control it slowly, which was conducive to the whip behind, so as to help the horse’s momentum, so he was able to surpass it” and drove away with his horse.
He Qi led threethousand soldiers to welcome power in Jinnan. Later, the soldiers refused to attack and won Xusheng’s spear. Ling Tong also returned to fight again. “He died left and right, and his body was also injured. He killed dozens of people. His power has been spared, but he has returned. The bridge has been defeated and the road has been cut off. He has been sneaked by armour.” other generals have also returned one after another.
4. I hate not beheading the enemy chieftain.
According to the records of emperor Xiandi’s spring and Autumn Annals, Zhang Liao asked the troops of the eastern Wu, “who is the general with purple beards? He is good at shooting horses. The soldiers answered,” it’s sunhuiji. “. Later, Zhang Liao met lejin. He didn’t know it before he said it. He chased after it and was content. He raised his army to sigh and hate.
After the war, Zhang Liao and other armies pursued and “won power several times”. Cao Cao learned that Zhang Liao’s fierce spirit was quite moved, so he worshipped Liao as a general for the eastern expedition. Later, he stayed in many armies and made him full-time in the eastern war zone; He was happy to enter and increase the capital by 500. He had made great achievements in the war. He divided 500 households into a son of marquis and moved to the right general; Li dianzeng has hundreds of families in the city.
On the Sunwu side, Jiang Qinli made meritorious service in the war and moved general Tang Kou; Ling Tong and pan Zhang worshiped general pian. “Tong Tong was painfully close to those who were not rebellious. He was unable to overcome his grief. His power led him to wipe it off. He said:” the public performance, the dead are gone. If the envoy is still there, there will be no one. “So he doubled it to his soldiers; Chen Wu was killed in the battle. He “mourned for his right and buried himself”. He was buried with his beloved concubine (afterthought), and visited 200 families.
4? The experience and lessons of this campaign
1. With a mere 7000 people, Zhang Liao was able to surpass the Wu army more than ten times. His preparation and planning before the war, sizing up the situation during the war, and resolute and thorough implementation all brought the defensive tactics to the extreme. It can be said that he was a classic example of a weak enemy with a strong one. Cao Junsheng won the battle in three aspects:
One is to anticipate the enemy and take the lead. Cao Cao came to Hefei for the second time. Although he was still working in vain, he had the opportunity to check the terrain in detail and predicted the inevitable trend of Sun Quan’s future use of troops. Therefore, he could make arrangements in advance according to the relationship and characteristics of the generals guarding the city. As for his teaching order, Hu Zhuyun in the general guide said: “use the Liao code to be brave and sharp, make it fight, be happy to advance and take care to keep it, and Xue tiwen, an official, make it impossible to fight”; Sun Sheng commented: “as for the defense of Hefei, the county is weak and helpless, the full-time brave are belligerent and dangerous, and the full-time cowardly are afraid. If there are few others, they will be greedy and fall; if they use lethal soldiers to attack the greedy and fallen soldiers, they will surely win; if they win, they will abide by the rules, and the rules will be firm. Wei Wu selects the members of the party, participates in the same and different, and preaches the use of the esoteric teachings for them; if things come to an end, they will be wonderful if they are in line with the agreement.” this is what he said.
Second, it is flexible and good at fighting. Zhang Liao was not only able to master Cao Cao’s strategic guiding ideology and use troops boldly, but also able to flexibly change and fight to the death in the implementation. He fully understood the importance of morale to both belligerents, that is, when defending the city, he should not blindly stick to it, but should be mixed in attack and defense, making it inconvenient for the enemy to come, attack and retreat, which truly reflected the essence of defensive tactics. Even Cao Cao was “following the Liao war, sighing for a long time”.
The third is to improve combat readiness. As early as during the war of Guandu, Cao Cao indicated that Liu Fu was the governor of Yangzhou, “Fu was ordered to build an empty city of Hefei and establish the rule of the state with a single horse”, “he was also high as a city fortress, accumulated more wood and stones, and made tens of millions of pieces of grass, stored thousands of Dendrobium for the benefit of fish paste, and stood guard for the war”. Zhang Liao and others had been stationed in Hefei for several years, and had already made preparations, so Sun Quan was unable to attack them repeatedly.
2. After the war in Chibi, Sun Quan personally visited the front line 11 times. This time, the situation was the best, but he also suffered the worst defeat. Although compared with Liu Bei’s defeat in Yiling, the eastern Wu only lost Chen Wu and thousands of soldiers, not to the extent of breaking the muscles and bones, the psychological impact was huge, so that when Zhang Liao was ill and marched south with Cao Pi, “his power was very afraid, and he ordered his Generals:” although Zhang Liao was ill, he should not be taken seriously. “It can be seen that Zhang Liao became a nightmare in Sun Quan’s heart. There are two main reasons for this defeat:
One is arrogance and neglect of the enemy. Sun Quan relied on a large number of people, while Hefei had few guards. He came unprepared and left defenseless. He was attacked twice in a row. It was a pity that the good situation was lost in vain after being hit by the head and the tail.
Second, they are brave and belligerent. The reason why this war had such great consequences was that Sun Quan was present in both attacks, and the situation was like a dangerous egg. As early as the first siege of Hefei, Sun Quan wanted to lead a light cavalry to attack the enemy. Zhang Zhen admonished him: “a man’s weapon is a murderous weapon, and a war is a dangerous thing. Today, his subordinates, relying on their strength and strength, suddenly take violent prisoners, and the people of the three armed forces are all cold hearted. Although they cut the generals’ flags and shake up the enemy’s field, this is the duty of a biased general, not the right general. In the past, Sun Quan had been willing to suppress the courage of Ben’s education and cherish the plan of overlord.” although Sun Quan accepted his words, he did not pay attention to it. Therefore, He Qi sobbed and said: “the Supreme Lord, always take care. Today’s affairs are almost disastrous, and the crowd is terrible. If there is no heaven and earth, it would have been a lifelong commandment.”. Bloody lessons are always easy to accept. “I am ashamed! I would like to overcome my heart, not only by writing to the gentry.”.
The battle of blood cheap Xiaoyaojin not only created the reputation of Zhang Liao as a peerless general, but also had a far-reaching impact on the monarchs and ministers of the eastern Wu to reconsider their national strategic thinking. According to the biography of Lu Meng, “today’s exercise is far away in Hebei, breaking through the yuan, and gathering the quiet and Hebei regions. Xu Tu is guarding the troops. He has not heard enough of them, but he can overcome them. However, the terrain is connected by land, and the supreme master has won Xuzhou today. He will come to fight for it ten days after the exercise. Although 70000 people are guarding it, he should still be worried about it. It is not like taking feathers. It is all based on the Yangtze River, and the situation is becoming more and more prosperous.”. It was just the embodiment of this change that when Cao Cao sent troops to moisten the beard again the following year, Sun Quan sent Du Wei, Xu meicao, to resign, Wei and Wu repaired, began to pay attention to Liu Bei, whose power was soaring, and concentrated on planning to seize the opportunity to recapture Jingzhou.
The year 215 was the most glorious year for Zhang Liao. It has been one year since Liu Bei came to Sichuan to replace Liu Zhang, and the trend of one-third of the world is becoming more and more obvious. Cao Cao took Hanzhong and wanted to sweep Xichuan southward. At this time, Sun Quan led 100000 troops to attack Hefei, which was garrisoned by zhangliao. Since most of Cao Cao’s troops were sent to Hanzhong battlefield on the western line, only more than 7000 soldiers were stationed in Hefei on the eastern line. Or Cao Cao knew that with Zhang Liao’s talent, more than 7000 people would be enough to stop the attack of the eastern Wu, so he left a clever plan to let Li Dian and Zhang Liao, who were defending Hefei, send troops to meet the enemy and be happy to defend the city. Sun Quan’s 100, 000 strong soldiers were so fierce that Cao Jun was immediately demoralized and his morale rocked. Zhang Liao decided to surprise the Wu army before the eastern Wu camp was stable to strengthen his morale, so he selected 800 strong soldiers and rushed into the unprepared Sun Quan camp that night, frightening Sun Quan to avoid the battle on the hill. Other military barracks of the eastern Wu came and surrounded Zhang Liao. Zhang Liao led his troops to fight out of the siege and return to the array. Although this small war did no harm to the eastern Wu, Zhang Liao’s leading role aroused Cao Jun’s fighting spirit. So Zhang, Li and Lesan will strengthen their defense and prepare for a protracted war. The eastern Wu army besieged Hefei for decades without success. Supplies became increasingly difficult. The morale of the army began to waver. Sun quannai ordered the withdrawal of the army. When the army withdrew from Xiaoyaojin at the Yangtze River Ferry, Sun Quan held a military conference. At this time, Xiaoyaojin was only guarded by more than a thousand guards. Sun Quan never expected that Zhang Liao would suddenly come and be killed in a panic. If it hadn’t been for the courageous protection of his generals, I’m afraid he wouldn’t have lived more than 70 years. This battle between Zhang and Liao killed the eastern Wu “everyone is afraid. Hearing the name of Zhang and Liao, children dare not cry at night”.
In the battle of Xiaoyaojin, Zhang Liao was able to take the initiative to lead the death squads to raid the enemy, which won the trust of his army and strengthened the morale of the army. His courage is commendable. After that, the army of the eastern Wu army retreated without a war. After tracking information, Sun Quan held a military conference, boldly sent troops to attack the Wu army, and won a great victory. It all depends on his ability to size up the situation and make good use of the art of war. Zhang Liao is both brave and resourceful. No wonder he is listed as the first of the five generals of the state of Wei in the annals of the Three Kingdoms.
Zhang Liao, who has martial courage, generals, loyalty and the ability to be a lobbyist, is a good friend of Guan Yu, the No. 1 maniac in the Three Kingdoms. To Xiaoyaojin: Wang Xin praised that there were many famous generals in Cao and Wei, and Zhang Liao was the first. Enlist in Liucheng and kill the enemy; Hefei was consolidated under the command of Tu Quan. With eight million to break one hundred thousand people, Ben can’t cultivate his courage. The battle of Hefei was won by no fluke, but by the words “urgent” and “split”. If you are in a hurry, anticipate the enemy first, take advantage of the enemy’s unprepared, and defeat the enemy before they are united. Power is invaded by heavy troops. They think that those who are in charge are invincible. The city guards are deep in ditches and high fortified. They dare not respond. They are lazy generals who control arrogant soldiers. If you strike against it, you will not break it? Those who split up, recruit those who dare to die, bully the public with a few, trample the weak with a strong force, point to Qu Kui in front, and seize the Qi of the three armed forces. If you set up a scepter to govern the way, and if you are not retreated by the arrows, the Liao Dynasty will be in vain. Not observing the sky, not observing the earth, not knowing me, not expecting the enemy, is the power in Hefei. The Liao Dynasty was able to defeat the thieves and occupy the nest in Changtun to deter the Wu people, which was the talent of Wei Wu. There are many famous generals in the world, but they can hardly last forever. Times change, and it is difficult to predict the outcome. However, the words “although Zhang Liao is ill, he cannot be an enemy” are true fear of the enemy. Liao can do all the work, or rely on power? A smile.
I read Zhang Liao’s passage when I believed in history. Among them, the only one that is not credible is the trick of Cao Cao. However, even if there was such a golden bag, Cao Cao only defined such a direction of taking attack as defense. However, Zhang Liao directly retreated from the enemy by surprise. I’m afraid Cao Cao had never expected such a result.
Wang Xin said, “Liao can do all the work, or rely on the power of the work? A smile.” Just a smile.
Compared with Zhao Yun’s attack array, Zhang Liao has the upper hand, one is to win in the midst of inferiority, the other is to survive in the midst of defeat.