Source: jingsiyouwo666 (id:jingsiyouwo666)
Today, I will tell my friends about Turkey. For those who are concerned about international politics, Turkey should be a familiar name because it has a relatively high international exposure rate. But for those who do not pay much attention to international politics, Turkey may still be a stranger.
Recently, there are two big news about Turkey.
One is that Russia attacked Ukraine in order to prevent its neighbor Ukraine from joining NATO. Before the war is over, Finland, another neighboring country of Russia, and Sweden, a neighboring country of Finland, will apply to join NATO. If Finland and Sweden join NATO, it will not be easy for Russia to settle this war, because it has prevented one neighboring country from joining NATO, but led to the other two neighboring countries joining NATO.
At such a critical moment, Turkey, as a member of NATO, stood up and resolutely opposed Finland and Sweden to join NATO. If Turkey opposes to the end, it can oppose success. Because NATO’s rule of the game is “unanimous consent”, if one country does not agree, this will not work. If this is the final result, the effect of Turkey’s vote of opposition will be the same as Russia’s fight.
So I said that Turkey’s opposition to Finland and Sweden joining NATO is big news.
The second big news in Turkey these days is that they have changed the name of the country.
The scope of the change is not large, but it has far-reaching significance. Specifically, Turkey in English has been changed into Turkey in Turkish, which is also called Turkey in Chinese.
Therefore, it is not obvious to us Chinese, but for the English speaking countries in the world, this change is very obvious, because Turkey in English is a polysemous word, which is not only the name of Turkey, but also the meaning of “turkey”, or the meaning of “failure”, or the meaning of “fool”.
Friends can imagine that Turkey was originally called English Turkey, which is a bit bad. For example, if you shout “turkey”, you know that you are calling this country; I don’t know. Some think they are shouting “turkey”, some think they are shouting “stupid”, and some think they are shouting “failure”. What is it called?
However, the two major events mentioned here are not directly related to China. It can only be said that they are important things in the overall pattern of the world and have indirect links with China.
So, does Turkey have any important direct ties with China? The answer is: Yes.
We should start from the name of his country. The word Turkey is very similar to the word Turk. In fact, Turkey also regards itself as the descendants of Turks.
We Chinese are very familiar with the word Turkic, which is one of the ethnic minorities around China mentioned in Chinese history textbooks.
Turks, a minority nationality, used to be very powerful. How powerful is it?
Let’s put it this way. In Chinese history, the Han and Tang Dynasties were very powerful. In the Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty under the governance of Emperor Taizong lishimin was particularly powerful. However, the Turks once defeated lishimin, or the Tang Dynasty of China under lishimin.
Lishimin’s defeat by the Turks was not an ordinary failure, but a serious failure. To what extent has it failed? Because after the defeat, a treaty of humiliating the country was signed, which was called Weishui League.
To what extent has the Weihe River Alliance lost power and humiliated the country? We won’t talk about the specific content today, we just talk about its position in history.
We generally believe that the representative period of losing power and humiliating the country in Chinese history was the late Qing Dynasty.
In the 2000 years before the end of the Qing Dynasty, China’s Central Plains Dynasty had three shameful black histories with the surrounding ethnic minorities. One was the alliance of Chanyuan signed between the Northern Song Dynasty and the Liao state (Chanyuan is now in Puyang, Henan Province). One is the siege of Baideng (Baideng is now in Datong, Shanxi Province) that Liu Bang, the emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, fell into when he attacked the Huns. The other is the Wei River alliance signed by Emperor Taizong lishimin of the Tang Dynasty and the Turks. The signing place was outside Chang’an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty at that time, which is now Xi’an.
It can be seen that the Turks used to be very powerful.
Of course, the Tang Dynasty soon turned over.
In 630 ad, the Tang Dynasty destroyed the eastern Turkic Khanate. In 657 ad, the Western Turkic Khanate was exterminated. Turks were basically eliminated, but only basically.
After a period of time, it revived, and a Turkic Khanate appeared, which was called “post Turkic Khanate” in history. However, it was no use reviving. The Turks faced the Tang Dynasty, the most powerful empire in the world, and were destroyed by the Tang Dynasty in 744. This time it was completely destroyed.
Then, the remaining small part ran to the west, all the way to the west, all the way to the present Turkey.
This is China’s historical link with Turkey.
But this is not the most important thing. The most important thing is that China also has direct ties with Turkey in reality. The point of contact is the word Turkic.
During the Tang Dynasty, the Turks once ruled the Huihe people, the ancestors of Xinjiang people in China. So the Turks now think that the Chinese people in Xinjiang are also Turks.
In fact, they are not the same thing at all. The Huihe people were ruled by Turks, not Turks. The defeat of the Turks by the Tang Dynasty in 744 A.D. was based on the Huihe people, the ancestors of the Chinese people in Xinjiang. In other words, the Tang Dynasty and the Huihe people within the Turkic Khanate united to defeat the Turks.
For example, the Han nationality in Chinese history once ruled the ethnic minorities, and the ethnic minorities in Chinese history also ruled the Han nationality, but we cannot say that the Han nationality and the ethnic minorities are the same nation. When we say that we are all Chinese, we do not mean that we are all Han Chinese or a certain minority.
Therefore, Turkey thinks that Xinjiang people in China are also Turks, which is nonsense, but it wants to talk like this.
Most importantly, the separatists in Xinjiang consider themselves Turks. This is a bit of a problem.
The separatists in Xinjiang have their own organizations. Two of them are the most common. One is called the “East Iraq movement”. What is the full name of the East Iraq movement? It is called “East Turkestan Islamic Movement”. Have you found out, my friends? There is a word called Turkic in this name. Another organization of Xinjiang separatists is called “East Turkestan Islamic Hizbullah”, the full name of which is “East Turkestan Islamic Hizbullah”. There is also a word called Turk in the name.
But this is not the most fatal thing. The most fatal thing is that Turkey, a country that claims to be a Turkic nation, has long sought to integrate people who are related to Turks.
The latest development is that on November 12, 2021, the leaders of Turkey, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan announced at the 8th summit of the “Cooperation Committee of Turkic speaking countries” in Istanbul that the “Committee of Turkic speaking countries” was renamed “organization of Turkic states”. This is another alliance of countries in Central Asia since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
On the face of it, there is nothing wrong with the Separatists who claim to be Turks in Xinjiang, but on the face of it, what is the secret? At least psychologically, it is a stimulus to the separatists in Xinjiang.
In this way, Turkey has a very direct relationship with China. Of course, our relations with Turkey have been good for so many years, and Turkey has handled this issue fairly well.
So it is necessary for us to know more about Turkey. On the macro level, Turkey is an important chess piece on the world chessboard, and it is becoming more and more like a chess player. Specifically, Turkey’s national dynamics are directly related to the stability of Xinjiang, China.
As we have already said, the Turks in history defeated China in 626 A.D., the Tang Dynasty in China, and the Tang Dynasty under the governance of Emperor Taizong Li Shimin. But four years later, in 630 ad, the Tang Dynasty took care of him in turn. In 657 ad, the Turks were once again taken care of, and in 744 ad, the Turks were taken care of for the third time.
After three times, it was finally completely solved. Since then, the Turks have not threatened China. This was the first entrepreneurial failure of Turks.
However, after the Turks were completely defeated by the Tang Dynasty, they went to Central Asia, mixed up, and came out in a strange way.
The Turks went to Central Asia and stayed dormant for about 300 years. In 1037, that is, the year Sudongpo, a great writer of the Northern Song Dynasty, was born, that is, the earliest paper money in the world — the period when jiaozi of the Northern Song Dynasty of China was born, the Turks established the Seljuk empire in Central Asia.
The Seljuk empire was very powerful. The territory in its heyday included Iran, Iraq, the Caucasus, most of Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine and other places.
In short, the Turks who were defeated by the Tang Dynasty went to Central Asia and the Middle East to seek hegemony.
As we all know, during the period when the Turks were defeated by the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Islam rose in the Middle East, so when the Turks went to that place, after hundreds of years of survival and development, they naturally believed in Islam, so the Seljuk empire was also an Islamic country.
However, the luck of the Turks always seems to be bad. When they were at their strongest around China, they happened to meet the most powerful Tang Empire in the world. When he was at the height of his power in Central Asia and the Middle East, he happened to meet the powerful Mongolian Empire.
So, finally, the Seljuk empire was destroyed by the Mongolian Empire. This is the second time that Turks failed to start a business.
But the Turks are still tenacious. They stayed dormant for about 200 years. In 1299 A.D., they established an empire called the Ottoman Empire, which was the name of their leader. In history, the Ottoman Empire was also called the Ottoman Turkish Empire. The name “turkey” first appeared in the field of history.
This Ottoman Turkish Empire is even more powerful than the previous Seljuk empire.
How good is he? In my opinion, he is even more powerful than China at the same time in some aspects. When I say this, I mainly mean that he has existed for a long time, from ad 1299 to ad 1923, for 624 years. At the same time, China experienced the replacement of the Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty, the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
In the history of such a powerful nation as China, only the Zhou Dynasty, which lasted 800 years, has lasted longer than the 624 years of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
The territory of the Ottoman Turkish Empire is very large. Although it is a little smaller than China in the same period, it is also second only to China in the world.
How big is the area? Generally speaking, most of the Mediterranean is covered by it, except for France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. Secondly, the black sea was completely covered by him. Third, both sides of the Red Sea are his territory. Fourth, the territory extends to the Persian Gulf.
In the article about Turkey on April 12, 2021 (rumor “turkey cut off the water supply for the Chinese embassy”, why?) It said that I personally counted how many countries in the world were included in the territory of the Ottoman Turkish Empire at that time? The result of the number is: more than 40.
Because he is so good, Europe has been worried about the day he will call. So I was worried, and there was nothing I could do about him. What should I do?
The European approach is the same as the current one to discredit China, and began to discredit the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Therefore, in English, the term Turkey is not only the name of the country, but also gives such derogatory meanings as “native chicken”, “fool” and “failure”.
Therefore, we Chinese should not be too angry when we see that the United States, Britain and other western countries are black China. This is their consistent virtue. When they can not win, they begin to blackmail others. This is their tradition and cultural tradition.
Of course, we can’t just let them do this, and we should fight back. If you don’t ask, it says, it says the fake is true. Just like the name of Turkey, it was embarrassing and had to change its name.
The most painful detail of the Ottoman Turkish Empire to the Europeans is that the Empire seized the Asia Minor Peninsula, controlled the throat of East-West trade, and made it impossible for European businessmen to easily go to India and China in Asia and toss things that were very profitable, as in the past. That is, the Ottoman Turkish Empire cut off the wealth of European merchants.
The Europeans had no choice but to find another way. The road on land has been cut into sections, which can face the vast sea. Therefore, the prologue of the era of great navigation is slowly opened.
It can be said that the existence of the Ottoman Turkish Empire changed the course of world history and forced Europeans to start exploring the oceans ahead of schedule.
However, everything that is good has its disadvantages. The Ottoman Turkish Empire occupied a major traffic artery, making it impossible for Eastern and Western businessmen to do business conveniently. Westerners had no choice but to start looking for ways at sea. The era of great navigation directly made the West strong, which in turn threatened the survival of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
As a result, the decline of the Empire was finally inevitable. In World War I, the Ottoman Turkish Empire became a defeated country. At the Paris peace conference, which triggered the May 4th Movement in China, the Ottoman Turkish Empire was dismembered and divided. The present Turkey inherited the Ottoman Turkish Empire. The territory of Turkey today is not at the same level as that of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
This is the third time that Turks failed to start a business.
In fact, at the end of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, about 100 years before the first World War, the Ottoman Turkish Empire was also trying to find new ways to maintain the survival and development of the Empire due to its shrinking land area and declining national strength.
This new approach should start with the word Turkic.
The people of the Ottoman Turkish Empire regarded themselves as descendants of Turks and ruled such a large area for more than 600 years. It is unclear whether people in many places are descendants of ancient Turks, but the language spoken by people in those places is Turkic. As long as the words were Turkic, the Ottoman Turkish Empire described these people as descendants of Turks.
Although it is a bit ridiculous to describe Turkic speakers all over the world, mainly in the Middle East and Central Asia, as Turks, people in all aspects have their own purposes and believe that they are more or less good for themselves. Therefore, many countries in the Middle East and Central Asia still have some responses.
This response converged into a trend called pan Turkism. Pan is the pan that talks in general terms, that is, the pan that overflows, that is, to say that many people are Turks in a muddle headed way.
I’m not talking nonsense when I say that it has confused many people into Turks. Let’s look at a typical event.
On january12,2015, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan met visiting Palestinian President Abbas at the presidential palace. Behind them, 16 people dressed as ancient soldiers lined up on the stairs. Turkey claims that these 16 Samurai represent 16 empires in Turkish history, all of which are the ancestors of Turks.
Let’s take a look at the 16 empires, or 16 nationalities, represented by the 16 samurai. They are:
Xiongnu, West Xiongnu, xiongren Empire, white Xiongnu, Turkic khanate, awar Empire, khassa Empire, Uighur khanate, Khara khanate, Ghazni Kingdom, Seljuk Empire, huarazimu, golden tent khanate, Timur Empire, Mughal Empire, Ottoman Empire.
A closer look at the 16 so-called empires bordering on Turks shows that they are very interesting. Among the 16, 7 are linked to China, namely, the Huns, the West Huns, the Uighur khanate, the Turkic khanate, the Kara khanate, the awar Khanate and the golden tent Khanate.
Xiongnu, we are all familiar with the major ethnic minorities in northern China. “The black geese fly high in the moon, flee alone at night, and want to drive away the light cavalry. The snow is full of bows and swords.” this poem is a poem describing China’s resistance to the Huns. The core area of Xiongnu’s activities is now Yinshan Mountain in Inner Mongolia, China.
The Western Huns were a branch of the Huns.
Huihe Khanate is the ancestor of the Xinjiang people who lived in the present Xinjiang area during the Tang Dynasty. They once united the Tang Dynasty to destroy the Turkic Khanate and later established the country.
The Kara Khanate is the Huihe people, the ancestors of the Chinese people in Xinjiang. Later, it joined forces with some people in Northwest China and Central Asia to establish a dynasty in Xinjiang and Central Asia.
The ancestor of the awar Khanate is actually Rouran, a nomadic nationality in northern China. Rouran, a minority nationality, has been mentioned many times in Chinese history textbooks. In the southern and Northern Dynasties of China, Rouran, a nation established by Rouran, became an important part of the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Southern Dynasty. Its main activities are in Inner Mongolia, Mongolia and Baikal Lake, Russia.
The golden tent khanate, one of the four great khanates in the Yuan Dynasty of China, was established by the second son of Genghis Khan’s eldest son, that is, the grandson of Genghis Khan. The main ruling areas are now western Russia, including Moscow, Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.
In short, Turkey has 16 empires in the world as their origins. With my limited historical and geographical knowledge, I find that 7 of them are related to China.
I’m not saying that he’s doing any harm to China or taking advantage of China, but that it’s too much.
If China talks like him, on the contrary, the Turks are also part of the Chinese nation, because the Turks originally ran from China. In this way, everything he talks about can be referred to China. If we continue to talk about it, we can focus on the golden tent Khanate of Turkey, which is one of the four largest khanates in the Yuan Dynasty. Its territory includes Eastern Europe, as far as Hungary.
If we want to talk about Hungary, we can not only talk about the Golden Horde, but also about the Huns in the Han Dynasty, because the Hungarians are descendants of the Huns in northern China. Today, Hungarians’ names are the opposite of those of Europeans as a whole.
As we all know, all Europeans, including the British, plus Americans and Canadians, have first names and last names. For example, the full name of US President Biden is Joseph Biden, Joseph is his first name, Biden is his last name. As we all know, Chinese people have the first name and the last name. For example, a Chinese is called Zhang San. Zhang is his last name and Zhang is his first name. However, in Europe, Hungarian names are an exception. Hungarian names are the same as Chinese names, with surnames first and surnames last.
When I say this, I don’t mean that I advocate China to talk like this. I want to let my friends feel how Turkey can talk.
Then why did he talk like that?
I think my friends can easily guess that, in Chinese words, it is necessary to establish the broadest Turkic united front.
What is his purpose in establishing a broad united front? That must be trying to do something big. What do you think he wants to do? That is to restore the glory of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. In Chinese words, it is called national rejuvenation.
After this analysis, we will find that Turkey is a country with great pursuit, and we can further take the opportunity to sigh: there are many countries in the world with pursuit!
Friends, do not think that only Americans, Chinese and Russians have pursuits on this earth. There are many countries in the world that have pursuits.
Just talking about the Middle East, we found today that Turkey is a country with great pursuit. In fact, there are three countries that want to dominate the Middle East. Besides Turkey, the other two are Iran and Saudi Arabia. They have their own ways, reasons and historical origins, but the result is the same, that is, they want to dominate the Middle East. In other words, to be moderate is to dominate the Middle East, integrate the Middle East and become the master of the Middle East.
Turkey’s banner is pan Turkism. What banner is Iran fighting?
First of all, Iran’s ancestors, once the Persian Empire, are very powerful in the Middle East, which is the solid foundation of his national self-confidence. But unfortunately, no matter how powerful the Persian Empire was, it was eventually destroyed by the Arab Empire, so Iran became a part of the Arab world.
However, we have to say that the Persians, that is, the Iranians, who once created the brilliant Persian Empire, have excellent genes in their bones, because after he became a part of the Arab world, he turned away from the guest and claimed to be the orthodox Islam in the Arab world.
What’s going on? Because when the Persian Empire was destroyed by the Arab Empire, shahrbanu, the daughter of the last king of the Persian Empire, became a prisoner. Because she was beautiful, she became the youngest wife of Hussein Ibn Ali, the son of Ali, the fourth generation caliph of Islam, the leader of the Arab Empire at that time.
Because of this woman, the Persians or Iranians declared to the Arab world that I am your orthodoxy, but you are a heresy. They call themselves Shiites. The core view is that only Ali and his immediate descendants are the legitimate heirs of Muhammad, and the last Persian princess is the second wife of the son of Ali, the fourth generation Caliph.
In this way, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Islam, naturally quit. Mohammed, the prophet of Islam, was born and grew up in Mecca, which is in Saudi Arabia. From 610 to 622 ad, Muhammad preached in Mecca.
Later, Mohammed moved to Medina to preach. Medina was also in Saudi Arabia. From 622 to 632 ad, Muhammad preached in Medina.
It can be said that Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia have decisive practical significance for the establishment, rise and development of Islam. Although Jerusalem, as we know it well, is also one of the three major Islamic holy cities alongside Mecca and medira, its significance is mainly symbolic. Because, according to legend, Mohammed, the prophet of Islam, flew to heaven on a stone in Jerusalem, saw God, spoke to God, and got the true message, so he became a prophet.
In the Islamic world, Saudi Arabia has such advantaged historical and cultural resources, but it is regarded as a heresy by Iran. No one wants to leave it here.
So Sunni, another branch of Islam headed by Saudi Arabia, is in conflict with Shia, a branch of Islam headed by Iran. At the same time, both Iran and Saudi Arabia want to dominate the Middle East. In addition, Turkey, an outsider from China, also wants to dominate the Middle East and the Islamic world under the banner of Pan Turkism.
They are all countries with great pursuit.
Today, I would like to focus on Turkey with my friends. By the way, I would like to talk about Iran and Saudi Arabia, saying that they both have great pursuits. I just want to tell my friends that there are so many countries in the world that have pursuits!
Just like in our real life, there are many people who pursue.
This will inevitably bring about many contradictions and problems. Everyone has a desire and wants to take the lead. It is strange that there are no contradictions and problems.
Moreover, such contradictions and problems must be complicated.
Some contradictions and problems are indirectly related to China, and some are directly related to China. For example, many people in Xinjiang, China also believe in Islam, while the people in Turkey, Iran and Saudi Arabia I introduced today all believe in Islam. The scope of their leadership and integration is geographically in the Middle East and Central Asia, and in the cultural category is the Islamic world.
Due to the complexity of contradictions and problems, we can not solve these various problems with a simple method. We can only constantly seek to maximize China’s interests by doing endless concrete things with great patience and wisdom in the game and interaction.
The purpose of my article today lies here because recently, some friends have always said that China is facing an extremely complex international situation. It is too troublesome to fight all day. They always hope to find a way to stop the enemy with one sword and one move. It’s really not possible. Let’s just say that there must be a war with this and that. I hope to fight a war, solve the problem thoroughly, and then live in peace.
To tell you the truth, I would like to have such an approach. However, from the perspective of Turkey’s ambition and the pursuit of Iran and Saudi Arabia, there are too many problems in the world, and it is impossible to have any unique skills to solve them one stroke at a time.
If there is any way to manage the overall situation, I think the growing strength is fundamental. In addition, as far as the Middle East is concerned, it is necessary to find out who is the master of the Middle East.
Who is the master of the Middle East? There is no doubt that Muslims who believe in Islam are the masters of the Middle East. They account for 99.99% of the population and territory.
Then, we can understand that Israel, which violates the United Nations resolution on the partition of Palestinian territories, continues to occupy Palestinian territories and is an enemy of the entire Islamic world, can never get our support on the issue of occupying Palestinian territories. Because if we support Israel, it is morally against United Nations resolutions. In terms of the vertical and horizontal strategy, supporting a small Israel will lose the whole Islamic world.