Uncover the first tomb robber of ancient and modern emperors Sun Quan, the great emperor of Eastern Wu

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Sun Quan is a famous person in the Three Kingdoms period, with the word Zhongmou. He is the founding emperor of the state of Wu. He is also the first person to steal the tomb of an ancient emperor and the first thief of the tomb of a South Vietnamese king!

There are many stories about Sun Quan. All Chinese people can tell one or two, but if it comes to Sun Quan’s tomb theft, few people know it, and many people may not believe it.

Therefore, before formally saying that Sun Quan stole the tomb, we must first say what is a tomb robber. Don’t think you pick up the “Luoyang shovel” yourself. That’s the tomb robber. In fact, no real tomb robber works with a shovel himself. They are all behind the scenes bosses and commanders.

Sun Quan’s tomb robbery, as well as Shi Jilong, Wu Zetian, Zhu Youxiao and Hongli, which will be mentioned later, are all such things.

? the birth of the Great Eastern Wu Emperor

Sun Quan, a famous military classic in ancient China, was written by his ancestor Sun Wu. Sun Wu later arrived in the state of Wu, and was introduced by Wu Zixu, another tomb robber mentioned earlier, and was placed in important position by King Helu of Wu. Since then, the sun family has gained a great reputation in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, and its descendants have been influenced by it.

However, Sun Quan was able to become emperor thanks to his father Sun Jian, rather than being influenced by Sun Wu. Sun Jian was one of the heroes at the end of the Han Dynasty. He successively served as Sima of other departments, Yi Lang, Changsha prefect and other positions, and he was an official to break the general of Lu, so he was also called “sun break Lu”.

Sun Jian’s experience was not simple. In the first year of Zhongping (184), when Liu Xie, the Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty, was in power, Sun Jian and youzhonglang jointly exterminated Zhu Xuan and the Yellow turban army. What is worth mentioning most is that he once attacked Dong Zhuo jointly with Yuan Shu and other princes, and he is still Dong Zhuo’s most feared opponent.

Sun Jianshi was the king of Changsha and fought in Changsha.

However, Yuan Shu and sun Jianming cooperated and secretly dismantled the platform, and many coalition forces were also waiting. When Sun Jian went to attack Hua Xiong, Yuan Shu did not send food and grass. Although Sun Jian finally defeated Hua Xiong, he was once in danger. In AD 192, when Yuan Shu sent him to attack Liu Biao in Jingzhou again, he was shot dead by Huang Zu, the head of Liu Biao, and his body was transported back to Jiangdong and buried in qua (now Danyang, Jiangsu), at the age of 37. After Sun Quan established the country, he pursued the posthumous title of Sun Jian as “emperor Wulie”.

Why should we talk about Sun Jian before talking about Sun Quan’s tomb theft? There are two reasons. One is that Sun Quan can become emperor, which is the foundation laid by Lao Tzu; Second, Sun Quan stuck the grave robber’s dog skin plaster, also because of Lao Tzu.

Sun Jian had four sons, sun CE, Sun Quan, Sun Yi, sun Kuang, and a daughter, sun Shangxiang. Sun Jian was not only powerful himself, but his children were also influential figures during the Three Kingdoms period. Sun Shangxiang was the wife of Liu Bei, the monarch of the kingdom of Shu. When Sun Quan wanted to return to Jingzhou, where Liu Bei “borrowed”, he listened to Zhou Yu’s “clever plan”. Liu Bei, who married his younger sister and lost his wife in middle age, was tricked by Zhugeliang. As a result, Sun Quan “lost his wife and lost his army”. So, in this way, is Sun Jian the “supreme emperor” of Wu, or Liu Bei’s old father-in-law and the “national father-in-law” of Shu. This is the saying of the romance of the Three Kingdoms. Sun Shangxiang is not in the annals of the Three Kingdoms.

Sun Quan is Sun Jian’s second son, and his brother sun CE is also a very good figure.

There is a saying in Soushenji that sun CE and Sun Quan brothers had abnormal omens when they were in their mother’s belly. When Sun Jian’s wife was pregnant with her eldest son sun CE, she dreamed that the moon flew into her arms, and when she was pregnant with Sun Quan, she dreamed that the sun came into her arms. After hearing his wife’s statement, Sun Jian was overjoyed to assert that “the sun and the moon are the essence of yin and Yang and a symbol of extreme wealth”.

As Sun Jian said, both brothers have become extraordinary figures.

Sun Jian was ambushed and killed by Huang Zu when he attacked Jingzhou. His eldest son, sun CE, inherited his father’s business. Sun CE did not live up to his father’s expectations. He made friends with heroes, and met Zhou Yu, Zhang Zhao, Zhang Zhen, etc. successively. He established a world in Jiangdong, became the “little overlord” of Jiangdong, and was awarded the Marquis of Wu by the Eastern Han Dynasty. In 199 ad, sun CE led his army to avenge his father by defeating his old enemy Huang Zu.

Sun CE was young and beautiful. He was called “Sun Lang” at that time. He was as close as brother to Zhou Lang (Zhou Yu), and finally became a brother-in-law. He married Qiao Gong’s two daughters, big Qiao and little Qiao, respectively. This romantic story of a talented man is still a good talk today. Originally, according to this development, the emperor of Wu will not have Sun Quan’s share in the future, but Sun CE may have no imperial life. In April A.D. 200, when he was out hunting, he was stabbed by the Department of old Qiu Xugong and died young. In this way, the imperial foundation laid by father and brother was transferred to Sun Quan. After Sun Quan became emperor, he dared not forget the contribution of the eldest brother, and pursued the posthumous title of sun CE as “King Huan of Changsha”.

In 221 ad, Cao Pi, the first emperor of Wei, named Sun Quan the “king of Wu”, but Sun Quan was willing to be king. After Liu Bei established the state of Chengdu, in 229 ad, Sun Quan became the emperor in Wuchang (now Ezhou City, Hubei Province), historically known as the “great emperor of Eastern Wu”, from which the state of Wu was born.

? build temples for Lao Tzu and steal tombs

Sun Quan stole the tomb after he became emperor.

It turned out that when ancient emperors established the country, they must establish “seven temples”, that is, to build seven temples to worship their ancestors, namely the “four relatives” temples (father, ancestor, great ancestor and high ancestor) and “two Yi” (TI) ? o. Gaozu’s father and grandfather) temple and Shizu temple. Among them, Taizu temple is located in the center, with three Zhaos and three mu on the left and right.

According to the information disclosed in the book of song, Li Zhi VI (Volume 16), after becoming emperor, Sun Quan did not fully follow this rule. He only built a temple for his Lao Tzu Sun Jian. This temple was honored as the “ancestor temple” of the eastern Wu Dynasty, and the temple was located in Linxiang County, Changsha County at that time.

However, there is something that puzzled later generations, that is, since it is the “ancestral temple”, it should be built together with the capital city, which is not only convenient for sacrifice, but also more orthodox. However, Sun Quan did this for two reasons. First, the “blessed land theory”. Sun Jian made great contributions to the suppression of the peasant uprising at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, including the Yellow turban army, and was worshipped by the imperial court as the governor of Changsha. In those days, the sun family started fighting against Qin and Dong Zhuo from Changsha, which was indeed a blessing for the sun family. The second is “feng shui theory”. Song book “ancient and modern things in different families” (Volume 17) quoted “Guangyi Ji” as saying that after Sun Jian’s father died, Sun Quan asked Mr. Feng Shui to be buried in fuchunbu, his hometown in Zhejiang Province. Suddenly a strange man asked him, does your family want to be a hundred princes or a fourth emperor? Sun Jian said he wanted to be emperor. So the man followed his finger. Sun Jian was very surprised. He believed the man and buried his father there. Once the Fuchun River rose, and a long and narrow sand belt formed around Sun Jian’s father’s grave. An old man said that your descendants will trace on the couch in the future, and then it happened.

However, after Sun Jian’s temple was repaired, Sun Quan did not offer sacrifices, and only Changsha officials were sent to offer sacrifices on his behalf every year. Sun Quan’s behavior was widely criticized by historians in the future, who believed that Sun Quan didn’t regard his Lao Tzu as the “ancestor” at all. He didn’t respect him for the king, and the establishment of the Shizu temple was just an appearance.

What makes historians’ criticism more intense is the source of wood for building the temple – it was stolen from the tomb.

It was dug out of someone else’s ancestral tomb and used the dead man’s “coffin plate” to build a temple for Lao Tzu. Historians said that they had never heard of it before, that is, they were very surprised and puzzled.

In those days, there were many trees in the mountains near Changsha, and the wood was rich, which was not like the current lack of forest resources. Sun Quan built a temple for Lao Tzu in this way, which really means “fooling the ghost”. However, some people think that Sun Quan did a good job, full of the color of “breaking the four old” advocated by Mao Zedong in the 1950s and 1960s, and a little like a “revolutionary” who changed customs.

? first thief of the tomb of the first Changsha King

Whose tomb did Sun Quan steal? The relationship between this man’s ancestry and that of the sun family is not general. He is Wu Rui, the first “king of Changsha” in history.

Wu Rui is a noble person of Changsha people. Without Wu Rui, there would be no current Changsha City. Therefore, Changsha people are not unfamiliar with Wu Rui at all. First of all, we must leave a place for this person in the city annals.

There are different versions of Wu’s genealogy about Wu Rui’s life experience. The mainstream view is that Wu Rui is the descendant of King Helu of Wu. In this way, Sun Quan’s ancestor Sun Wu can prosper, and he also thanks Wu Rui’s ancestor King Wu for digging the tomb of his benefactor. It’s really unreasonable. It turned out that after he Lu’s son fuchai succeeded to the throne, he didn’t care about state affairs and indulged in fame and lust. He was destroyed by the state of Yue in 473 BC. Gou Jian killed fuchai in Puyou Pavilion in Yuhang mountain, and his descendants were divided into four parts. The prince’s friend and his brother, who was then an expository doctor, took his mother (the disgraced queen) and family members to live in seclusion in Yaoli (Youlong Township, Xiuning, Anhui Province), Fuliang County, Jingdezhen City, Jiangxi Province (one said to live in seclusion in Fanyang, now the northeast of Poyang, Jiangxi Province). Another Prince badge came to the former General Secretary Jiang Zemin’s hometown, now Wuyuan, Jiangxi Province. Wu Rui is the fifth generation of descendants of the king of Wu who lived in seclusion to Yaoli.

Another theory is that after the state of Wu was destroyed by the state of Yue, Wu Rui’s ancestors fled their hometown alone, fled to the state of Qi, were accepted by the Duke of Qi, and married the princess Jiang. In the generation of Wu Rui’s father Wu Shen, the whole family moved south to the state of Chu and lived in the state of Chu. On the eve of the subjugation of the state of Chu, Wu Shen sized up the situation, crossed the Yangtze River with his family and lived in seclusion in Yaoli.

Wu Shensheng has two sons. Wu Rui is the eldest son. He has outstanding talent since childhood. After the unification of Qin Dynasty, he became the county magistrate of Fanyang (Poyang East, Jiangxi Province). He is honest and honest, and has won the hearts of the people. He is praised as “fanjun” by the people. At the end of Qin Dynasty, the anti Qin uprising surged everywhere. Wu Rui judged the situation, made a quick decision, resolutely responded to the uprising against Qin Dynasty, and was named “king of Hengshan” by Xiang Yu. Because of violating Xiang Yu’s instructions, he was later cancelled as king.

In the following time, Wu Rui helped Liu Bang win the world of Han family. After unifying the country, Liu Bang re enfeoffed the princes, of which there were seven different surnames: Han Xin, king of Chu, Wang yingbu, king of Huainan, Peng Yue, king of Liang, Zhang Ao, king of Zhao, Han Wang Xin, Zang Da, king of Yan, and Wu Rui, King of Changsha. The capital city of Changsha is Linxiang. Among all the kings with different surnames, only the Changsha state of Wu Rui has a good beginning and end.

In fact, Changsha is a small country, which actually controls only one county. According to the letter written by Jia Yi, who was once the king Taifu of Changsha in 174 BC, the number of national households in Changsha in the early Han Dynasty was only 25000. According to the situation at that time, there were only more than 100000 people in the country.

However, although the state of Changsha is small, it is the throat to enter the South Vietnam countries, and it is the gateway to prevent the Baiyue princes from attacking the Central Plains. Its military position is extremely important. Soon after the consolidation of the world, Liu Bang began the plan to cut off the kings with different surnames. Seven of them were destroyed successively, leaving only Changsha state, saying Wu Rui was virtuous and loyal. But Liu Bang was still worried about him, because he was the king of Wu, and he might one day oppose Han independence.

Unable to ban it for the time being, Liu Bang sent a Chudi born confidant named Li Cang as the Prime Minister of the state of Changsha, in fact to monitor the every move of King Wu Rui. Coincidentally, Li Cang’s tomb was found by the Liuyang River in the eastern suburb of Changsha in the 1970s. This is the famous Han tomb in Mawangdui Township, of which the second owner is Li Cang. A thousand year old female corpse unearthed in tomb 1 of the Han Dynasty is his wife Xin Zhui. Someone once joked after knowing this relationship, saying that Xin Zhui might have met Wu Rui and had dinner together.

? mystery of the death and burial ceremony of the first king of Changsha

Here is the death of Wu Rui.

According to the biography of Wu Rui in the book of Han Dynasty (Volume 34), in 201 BC, Wu Rui, the king of Changsha, was only a year old. At the age of 40, he died shortly after his birthday. After his death, Liu Bang gave him the posthumous title of “King Wen”, and his son succeeded him to the throne. The cause of Wu Rui’s death, which is not explained in the history books, seems to have died suddenly, leaving room for future generations to speculate.

It is said that when he led his troops to pacify Fujian and reached the Jinjing mountain area (shigu mountain, 15 miles northwest of Ningdu County, Jiangxi Province today), he contracted a serious disease and died on the way. Others simply believe that Wu Rui was poisoned by Liu Bang and was secretly ordered by Li Cang, the Prime Minister of Changsha. Although this is strange, but contact eight different surnamed Wang, seven did not get a good end, Liu Bang also had nothing to do with it.

Judging from historical data, Wu Rui’s death is indeed suspicious. Wu Rui had a very talented concubine named Mao Ping. On her birthday in the year of her death, Wu Rui and Mao Ping boated on the Xiangjiang River. Looking at the Castle Peak in the distance, looking at the clear water in the near, thinking about all these years of war outside, fighting and killing, and the couple gathering and dispersing, Mao and Wu Rui both fell into an indescribable sad realm. Mao said to his husband impromptu, “evil! I want to know you, and I will live a long life without extinction. Mountains without tombs, rivers without exhaustion, thunder in winter, rain and snow in summer, heaven and earth together, but I dare to be separated from you.” Wu Rui thought of death and said, “Rui should go to the rooftop and watch the darkness of the gate of heaven.” Wu Rui’s hometown in Yaoli has a beautiful place – wugujian Yang Tiantai. When he was young, he should often go to play, so he was a little impressed. What he meant was to send me back to the Tiantai in his hometown of Yaoli for burial after death, or to look at the red sun in the morning and the moon in the evening, and to end his old wish that he could not return home and the leaves would return to his roots. But Wu Rui’s wish came true 400 years after his burial, which is another afterword.

Did Wu Rui have a premonition that something unexpected was going to happen? Anyway, soon he died, and soon Mao died, and the mystery in this may never be solved.

After Wu Rui died, he did not return to his hometown Yaoli, but was buried in Beijin City, northwest of the state capital Linxiang, according to the specifications of princes.

Li Daoyuan, a geographer in the Northern Wei Dynasty, once visited the former site of Wu Rui’s tomb. He wrote in the water classic, notes to Xiangshui (Volume 38), “(Wu Rui’s tomb) is more than 68 feet wide, and he boarded it to write an item for Chan (CH á n) Guo Zhijia.” According to Li Daoyuan’s records, the tomb of Wu Rui is very large, about four feet and one meter in the Han Dynasty, and the perimeter of the tomb of Wu Rui reached 170 meters. It seems that Sun Quan did not shovel it down and destroy it after excavation.

Since there are many ancient tombs and famous tombs near Changsha, why choose Wu Rui’s? This is because Wu Rui’s tomb has many materials and is good.

During the Qin and Han Dynasties, a very high-level burial ceremony system was popular, which was called “Huang Chang ticuo”. This burial method is conducive to the protection of corpses. It was originally used exclusively by the emperor of Zhou in the spring and Autumn period. Later, princes and meritorious men can also be used with special permission. For example, after the death of Huo Guang, the great general of the Western Han Dynasty, Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty gave him a Zigong, a toilet, and a Huangchang puzzle.

“Huang Chang Tiao” is all made of top-grade wood. The frame structure around the tomb is piled with cypress beams, which requires a lot of wood. Yangzhou Guangling King Museum has preserved two sets of “Huang Chang ticuo”, which are only seen in the country. They were unearthed in tomb 1 and tomb 2 of Tianshan Mountain in Gaoyou, Jiangsu Province in 1980. The tomb is owned by Liu Xu, the son of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, and the queen of Guangling.

The whole tomb is 13.5 meters long from north to south, 11.2 meters wide from east to west, and 4.10-4.50 meters high. It is surrounded by superior square timbers. There are 857 pieces of block timbers in total. Each square timber is generally 0.94 meters long, 0.40 meters wide and thick, and is built layer by layer. I once went with the students of the Department of Archaeology of Nanjing Normal University. Although it was buried in water in 2000, the wood is still as hard as new.

The well preserved and complex “Huang Chang Tiao” was found in the Western Han Tombs in Dabaotai, Beijing, and the Laoshan Han Tombs in Shijingshan District. As Liu Bang’s only king with a different surname who did not remove his country name, Wu Rui’s burial should also use this burial system. The basis of this inference is that later King Liu Xu of Guangling used “Huang Chang Tiao”. To say the least, even if Wu Rui did not use this “emperor’s burial style” after his death, according to the fact that the coffin chambers were all made of wood (not bricks) in the Qin and Han Dynasties, the amount of wood used for the burial of Wu Rui, the king of Changsha, would also be amazing, otherwise Sun Quan would never send someone to rob the tomb.

Sun Quan’s theft of Wu Rui’s tomb materials is recorded in both official and unofficial history. Judging from these historical materials, Sun Quan requisitioned many local migrant workers when he looted Wu Rui’s tomb and built Sun Jian temple. It takes a lot of labor and time to transport so much wood to the ground.

? the mystery of incorruptible corpses and “corpse breeding ground”

Sun Quan’s tomb raiding also led to a “ghost” phenomenon. In the historical records of tomb raiding (Part I), it is not exaggerated to call it the first wonder in the history of tomb raiding in China.

Wu Rui died in 201 BC, 400 years have passed since Sun Quan stole the tomb. But after opening his coffin, it was found that Wu Rui’s body was not rotten at all. “It looks like life, and its clothes are immortal.”.

Tomb is a special place for human corpses. It is normal to find corpses. Moreover, because of the convergence and the good protective measures during burial, it is not a myth that the corpse will not rot for a long time. Especially before the Qin and Han Dynasties, the treatment technology of the corpse can be said to be the best. The Xinzhui corpse in Mawangdui lasted 2100 years and was still flexible when it was unearthed. At present, the oldest incorruptible ancient corpse found in China, the owner of gejiagang No. 1 tomb, is also a Han corpse, dating back more than 2300 years, belonging to the middle and early Warring States period. The body was dragged out by modern tomb robbers in 1994. Interestingly, this group of people threw the real “treasure” – this millennium old corpse into the theft hole. Instead, they stripped off their silk clothes and stuffed them into snake skin bags. Later, they sold them to cultural relics dealers for 4000 yuan. Like Lu pheasant, the empress of Liu Bang, the tomb robbers raped the corpse because the corpse was as fresh as life. In the Western Jin Dynasty, the mausoleum of Empress Dowager Bo, another empress dowager of Liu Bang, was stolen. After opening the coffin, the Empress Dowager also “looked as fresh as life”.

There are also powerful ones. In the ninth year of Yixi (413) when Sima Dezong, the emperor of Jin’an, was in power, someone stole Bian Hu’s tomb, a famous military general in the early Eastern Jin Dynasty, “dissect the coffin and sweep it, with the surface of the pot as raw as a corpse, hands knowing fists, and claws reaching back”. The original site of Bian Hu’s tomb is near the Chaotian Palace in Nanjing. After digging up the coffin, the tomb robbers found that Bian Hu’s body was not only not rotten, but also grew long nails that could touch his back. This is a famous miracle in the history of ancient Chinese tomb raiding. It’s really a ghost!

The nearest living ghost happened when sun dianying stole the eastern Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty. When sun dianying’s men opened the coffin of Cixi in the eastern Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty, they found that Cixi’s body was not rotten, and her skin was as white and tender as a girl, which made some soldiers move the evil idea of raping the corpse. What’s more surprising is that Cixi’s hands grew more than an inch of white hair, and her nails also grew out.

After the human body is buried, the nails can grow out. According to the folk saying in the past, it is buried in the “corpse raising place”. What is “corpse raising place”? It is generally stated in ancient burial books that “the earth book is a place where pure Yin does not melt, and the corpse does not melt for a long time. It is called raising the corpse, the main culprit”. The viscera of the corpse buried here are rotten, but the hair, teeth, nails and other parts will continue to grow. Therefore, there are more zombies in the “corpse breeding ground”.

In ancient times, Feng Shui believed that the “corpse raising place” was a fierce place, such as qingwuzi’s “burial Sutra”, Guo Pu’s “burial book”, Guan Yun’s “geography refers to Mongolia”, Yang Junsong’s “three dragon Sutra” and other classic burial books, which all expressed this view, saying that “burial is not appropriate”. The principle is that the corpse is affected by the evil Qi in the crypt.

Wu Rui was just buried on the “corpse raising ground”? This question is not easy to answer, but what can be answered is that the so-called “corpse raising place” is a superstition. Who believes who is stupid? In the past, it was too late to protect the corpse from corruption. It should be a good thing to “raise the corpse”!

? tomb robbers recognize the truth of the descendants of the tomb owner

The ghost phenomenon caused by stealing Wu Rui’s tomb, if so far, is not surprising. The surprise is still below.

Soon, the Hunan man who stole wood for Sun Quan went to Anhui. When passing Shouchun, he met an intermediate officer on the road. He was at the rank of captain at that time. He was very surprised and asked the captain, “why do you look like the former king wurui of Changsha, just a little shorter.”

The captain was surprised and asked him, “Wu Rui is my ancestor. Why did you see Wu Rui?”

The man told the story of Sun Quan stealing Wu Rui’s tomb and taking the wood inside to build Sun Jian temple. It turned out that the official looking man was Wu Gang, the 16th grandson of Wu Rui. Wu Gang later asked whether Wu Rui had been buried again.

Such a coincidence happened in the Tang Dynasty for hundreds of years, but Wu Gang was replaced by Xiao Yingshi, a famous scholar in the Tang Dynasty.

Xiao Yingshi is the great grandson of Xiao Hui, the son of emperor Liang Wu of the Southern Dynasty. He once served as a meritorious Cao in the Yang mansion. After his term of office expired, he traveled to the south. One day, he and his companions crossed the river by boat from Guazhou. There were two young men in the boat. After looking at Yingshi for a long time, they said, “this man is very similar to Xiao Hui, who was once crowned king of Poyang County!” Xiao Yingshi was very surprised, but he got off the boat and broke up before asking.

A year later, when xiaoyingshi was traveling north through Xuyi county, he met with the county magistrate and just caught fiveorsix tomb robbers here. Xiao Yingshi saw that the two young men he met on the boat were among them. Only then did Xiao Yingshi know that they were habitual grave robbers. Although he is young, he has “worked” for more than ten years and has stolen countless ancient tombs, one of which is the Poyang King’s tomb.

After the Poyang King’s tomb was excavated, they found a large number of buried treasures. They also found that Xiao Hui’s body was not rotten. Like living people, he was about 50 years old and his beard was a little gray. When taking the boat, they saw that Xiao Yingshi looked very similar to Poyang king, and they couldn’t help but say a few words. Who knows, Xiao Yingshi is the descendant of Poyang king. Sun Quan’s theft and excavation of Wu Rui’s tomb was very dynamic, which surprised Wu Rui’s people living in Fuliang Yaoli. When they learned about the theft of their ancestral tombs, they rushed to Changsha and saw that Wu Rui, who was proud of himself and regarded as the holy ancestor, had his tomb stolen, his coffin prized, and his body exposed to the sun. They were extremely sad and angry to death. They did not rule out that someone wanted to talk to Sun Quan. But at that time, Sun Quan was the great emperor of Wu, and Wu Rui’s people had to endure it.

According to Wu Rui’s will to “go to the rooftop and watch the darkness of the gate of heaven”, the descendants decided to move Wu Rui back to his hometown Yaoli. It is said that in order to prevent further excavation, his secret was buried deep in a cave under the wugujianyang Tiantai, and the remains still exist today. The tomb of Wu Rui in Changsha has long been destroyed. There is no place to look for the tomb site in those days, only four tall buildings. If it weren’t for Sun Quan’s bad deeds, Wu Rui’s tomb might still be in the north of Changsha, and the local people could make great efforts to develop tourism resources.

In addition, they also built wurui’s clothes tombs in Xiuning, Wuyuan, Fuliang, Gaoling, etc. Therefore, there is more than one Wu Rui tomb in Anhui and Jiangxi. Now the famous Wu Rui tomb is located on the Jishan mountain in lengshuiting village, zhentou Township, Wuyuan County. There are three tombs, with a distance of 100 meters, all facing north. In front of the tomb, a stone was erected to seal the door, surrounded by bluestones. There are two tombstones, one of which is engraved with “the tomb of Prince Rui of Changsha, the 30th zusha of Yanling County”, and the other is engraved with “the tomb of Prince Rui of Wu, the king of Changsha of Han Dynasty”.

? ancient tomb robbers actually stole the “coffin board”

Seeing here, maybe someone will cry for Sun Quan and rob the tomb of Changsha Wang wurui. It may be the bad idea of his men. In fact, even if the idea came from his subordinates, Wu Rui was a good official and benevolent person in history. Digging his tomb requires social moral and political risks. Without the nod of the current emperor, who dares to move the Luoyang shovel, and who dares to use his “coffin plate” to build the Emperor’s ancestral temple? Absolutely not.

Just as Chen Feng, the great eunuch of the Ming Dynasty, stole tombs wantonly in Hubei Province, he could not steal them without the command of the Emperor Zhu Yijun behind his back. Moreover, at the beginning of Wu Kingdom, palaces and temples were to be built, and there was a great demand for wood. Stealing tomb wood was a cost-free means of “local materials”.

In ancient times, stealing materials from other people’s ancestral graves, ancestral temples, and old palaces was not a rare phenomenon, but a lot of examples. For example, as will be mentioned later, Liu Yao of the former Zhao Dynasty and Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty both did so during the Sixteen Kingdoms period, which made them included in the “celebrity list” of ancient Chinese tomb robbers.

Theft of tomb materials is also one of the purposes of tomb robbers. In modern times, the theft of tomb materials still exists. Why do tomb robbers steal coffins? Because I fell in love with the coffin board. Coffins are generally made of good wood, such as nanmu. In the Han funeral custom, even the poorest people will think of ways to get a good “material” for the dead, and even things that cannot be buried without a good coffin.

Unless he was as poor as Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, he would be buried with a mat. It is also for this reason that tomb robbers are eyeing the coffin plate.

Wu Chengen, the author of journey to the west, was robbed in Huai’an, Jiangsu Province during the “Cultural Revolution”. When I interviewed in the local area in early 2008, an insider of that year told me that it was the members of the production team who responded to the call and dug collectively, and the production team also gave everyone work points. Wu Chengen’s coffin was large and made of good material. After being disassembled, it was the same as the new wood. Later, it was sent to the local village primary school for desks, doors and windows. A willing man once left a headstock, but later he also lost it.

Some people even use coffin plates for dowry and paint them with color paint, which is the same as the new ones. Moreover, because of the good material, buyers who do not know the truth will be particularly optimistic. But because it was the coffin board of the dead, once exposed, the carpenter will be in big trouble. Quitting and changing careers is a small matter. Maybe he will be beaten half to death by the bride’s parents. The grave robber’s more excessive behavior is to directly steal the coffin and sell it. In the Ming Dynasty, Suzhou had some professional tomb robbers who stole coffins and sold them. There is such a record in Wu Fenglu by Huang shengzeng of the Ming Dynasty——

“From the middle of Zhengde… The tombs in jiulongwu, Xishan, are excavated within two or three days after burial. Take their clothes and coffins, and dump their bodies on the earth. If they last for a long time, there will be perennial grass in the tomb. The coffins are sent to family stores for sale.”

? anecdotes of sun Xiu’s tomb theft when he was Emperor

Say it again. When Sun Quan’s sixth son sun Xiu was Emperor (Wu Jing emperor), there was also a strange story of stealing tombs to get materials.

This matter can be seen in “baopuzi inner chapter”——

During the reign of Emperor Wu Jing, the garrison generals dug tombs in Jiangling (also known as Guangling) and took BanZhi to govern the city. Later, there was a large tomb with overlapping stone leaves, which were pivoted open and closed, and the surrounding roads were used as vehicles. And you can ride a horse. And cast copper for the number of ten, and made ten heads. Five feet long, all with big crowns and clothes, holding swords as waiters. The spirit sitting is carved with bronze people, and the stone wall behind it. Lieutenant general Yan Dian will leave the army. Or a servant, like a prince’s tomb. Break its coffin. There was someone in the coffin, with white sideburns and a face like a stranger. There is mica in the coffin, which is about ten feet thick, and thirty pairs of white jade are used as corpses. The soldiers raised the dead to lean against the tomb wall. A jade is a foot long and looks like a wax gourd. It falls from the arms of the dead. There is gold in both ears and nostrils, as big as dates.

“Baopuzi” is divided into internal and external chapters. It was written by Ge Hong, a famous alchemist from the Eastern Jin Dynasty. He was born in Jurong, Jiangsu Province today. There are 20 internal chapters, which discuss immortals, alchemy, talismans (L ù) and other things, and are excerpts from various note novels such as “Taiping Imperial Palace”. This tomb, which happened during the reign of emperor Jing of Wu, was stolen by the city guarding officers in the territory of Wu state. It was not owned by ordinary people. From the structure of the tomb and the copper people buried with it, it was reasonable to speculate that it was the rank of the monarch.

After prying open the coffin, the tomb owner’s body did not decay. The soldiers who stole the tomb held the body on the tomb wall and stood up. A one size “jade wax gourd” (Empress Dowager Cixi of the Qing Dynasty buried “jade cabbage” with her after her death) fell from the dead’s arms. Gold nuggets the size of dates were also stuffed into her ears and nostrils. It seems that the city guarding officer originally just wanted to “borrow” the tomb owner’s wood. Who would have thought that he had found so many treasures, which could be said to have made an unexpected windfall.

Tomb robbers are not only interested in coffin boards, but also tomb bricks and other things. In ancient times, the price of bricks was not low. For example, in the northern and Southern Dynasties, the price of 200 bricks was equivalent to that of a piece of silk. The price of a piece of silk was as high as twoorthree Wen when it was high, and as low as onethousand Wen when it was low. According to twothousand Wen, a brick was worth ten Wen, and the profit was quite considerable. No wonder tomb robbers will focus on Tomb materials, which is more cost-effective than farming.

In the past, some people made a living by stealing tomb materials in Jiangnan. According to the magazine of Song Dynasty Jiang Xiufu quoted in the tea room Cong banknotes (Volume 16) by Yu Yue of the Qing Dynasty, “the tomb of the king of Jiangnan was distributed by the villagers and its bricks were taken for sale.”

? steal the tombs of three generations of kings of South Vietnam again

Tomb robbers’ tomb robbing materials are only a small part of the motive of tomb robbing. Most of them are done by tomb robbers. Most of the objects they steal are ordinary people’s tombs, and there are not many gold, silver and jewelry buried with them. In most cases, tomb robbers are still interested in buried treasures.

Sun Quan’s tomb theft was like this, not just “borrowing wood”, but his biggest goal was to covet wealth. At that time, Cao Cao and Dong Zhuo, heroes of the late Han Dynasty, also stole tombs part-time to raise military pay and military supplies through tomb theft. Sun Quan, who was in the social environment at that time, did not forget to “touch the gold” and accumulated huge wealth for the Wu state and the sun family.

According to historical records, after the land of Changsha was occupied by the eastern Wu Dynasty, Sun Quan did imitate Cao Cao’s practice, causing people to steal the tombs of princes and nobles here and obtain rare treasures. One of the written records is that he successfully looted the tomb of the third generation of Nanyue King, Ming King Yingqi.

Nanyue takes today’s Guangzhou as its center, and its territory is the vast area of the Pearl River Basin in Nanling, including the South China Sea. It has been the territory of the state of Vietnam since ancient times. People lived in fishing, hunting and rice planting. At that time, it belonged to the socio-economic form of agriculture, and Nanyue people created a distinctive Nanyue culture. But the first king of Nanyue was not the local indigenous Yue people, but Zhao Tuo of the Central Plains.

According to the records in the book of Han, southern Guangdong, biography of Zhao Tuo (volume 95), Zhao Tuo was originally a Zhending (now Zhengding County, Hebei Province) person of the state of Zhao during the Warring States period. He fought bravely with the Qin army in his youth. In 219 BC, Qin Shihuang sent Tu Sui (Su ?) As the chief General and Zhao Tuo as the deputy general, he led 500000 troops to pacify Lingnan. However, Tu Sui indiscriminately killed innocent people, was tenaciously resisted by the Vietnamese, and was killed by the local people. Qin Shihuang reappointed Ren Xiao as the main general, and together with Zhao Tuo, he went to the expedition again. After four years of efforts, he completed the great cause of pacifying Lingnan in 214 BC. The two men made many military achievements in the campaign to pacify Lingnan. Later, Emperor Qin Shihuang appointed Ren Xiao as the newly established supreme military and political officer of Nanhai County, the county lieutenant, and the county government was located in Panyu (today’s Guangzhou); Zhao Tuo was appointed Longchuan County Magistrate of Nanhai county.

? it was forbidden to sell female animals to South Vietnam in the Western Han Dynasty

After the death of the first emperor of Qin, there were four anti Qin uprisings in the Central Plains. At that time, Ren Xiao was seriously ill, but the sudden change in the situation in the Central Plains made Ren Xiao very anxious. He summoned Zhao Tuo to his bed and told him that a group of heroes such as Xiang Yu, Liu Bang, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang had fought against Qin and supported themselves one after another. Ren Xiao asked Zhao Tuo to send troops to cut off military routes and get ready. South Vietnam is surrounded by mountains in the north, the sea in the south, and thousands of miles from east to west. It is completely possible to establish an independent country alone, and confirmed Zhao Tuo as his future successor.

However, Ren Xiaoming should not be king, and soon died of illness. Zhao Tuo took over Nanhai county. Originally, Zhao Tuo had ambitions, and Ren Xiao’s plan of “building the country” was just what he wanted. Soon Zhao Tuo cut off the Qin Kaixin road leading to the north of the five ridges, blocking the trend of the Central Plains peasant uprising spreading to the south of the five ridges, and Nanyue became a de facto independent kingdom.

Just after Liu Bang defeated the Chu army and Xiang Yu committed suicide in Wujiang River, before Liu Bang was preparing to ascend the throne in the water Yang of Shandong Si (s ì), Zhao Tuo took the lead as the “emperor”. He announced the establishment of the Nanyue state and established himself as the king of Nanyue.

The establishment of South Vietnam played an important role in promoting cultural exchanges between the north and the south, improving the production and living standards of South Vietnamese, and changing the barbaric customs of the Vietnamese, such as killing the first son, cannibalism and other vices. Like Wu Rui who first built Changsha City, Zhao Tuo also contributed to the success of Guangzhou and other southern cities today.

But once the Han Dynasty of Liu Bang was stable, how could Zhao Tuo be the king and hegemon around him? So Liu Bang began to think about the same thing as dealing with the seven kings with different surnames who had been granted at the beginning, and wanted to destroy the Nanyue state. Liu Bang first reduced him to his own vassal king, and then destroyed Nanyue.

Zhao Tuo didn’t buy Liu Bang’s account. In the eleventh year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty (176 BC), Liu Bang sent Lu Jia to Nanyue to persuade Zhao Tuo to return to the Han Dynasty. Zhao Tuo accepted the seal ribbon of Nanyue King given to him by Liu Bang and submitted to the Han Dynasty. Nanyue became a vassal state of the Han Dynasty, paying tribute to the current Dynasty on time.

After Liu Bang’s death, empress Lu pheasant became the de facto female emperor of the Han Dynasty. She changed Liu Bang’s means of appeasing South Vietnam, which worsened the relationship between the two sides. The central government of the Han Dynasty implemented an economic blockade policy against it, prohibiting the trading of iron farmland in the customs markets on the South Vietnam border, just as the United States prohibits the sale of sophisticated weapons to other countries today. The animals transported to South Vietnam must only be male, not female, in order to destroy the production of South Vietnam.

Seeing that something was wrong, Zhao Tuo sent his ministers to plead guilty three times, asking for the lifting of the ban to be invalid, and launched a war. He first challenged Wu Rui’s Changsha state, the gateway to the Nanyue state, on the grounds that Lu pheasant “banned Nanyue”, which was a bad idea of Wu Rui.

The small state of Changsha, which was the opponent of Nanyue, was soon eliminated from several counties. At the same time, Zhao Tuo once again declared the independence of Nanyue, honored as “Emperor Wu of Nanyue”, and began to be on an equal footing with LV pheasant. Lu pheasant, a ruthless woman, naturally couldn’t swallow this tone and sent soldiers to attack. The above speculation that Wu Rui may have died on the way to search for the nest of Nanyue state is based on this history.

The first group to go to crusade was long Xie Hou Zhou Zao, who entered South Vietnam with 100000 troops. However, because the soldiers in the north were acclimatized to the hot and humid climate in South Vietnam, coupled with the miasma in the mountains and forests, the plague was prevalent, and the soldiers fell one after another. Fortunately, the two sides deadlocked for more than a year, and soon Lu pheasant died, and the war between the two sides was temporarily stopped. Later, the emperors of the Sixteen Kingdoms also favored “empty tombs” and set up more fake tombs to confuse tomb robbers. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period, almost all emperors implemented the secret burial system. For example, Shi Le, the first lord of the later Zhao Dynasty, and Shi Jilong, Emperor Wu, built many tombs for themselves. Shi Le even had a funeral in the middle of the night, and the people who buried him carried the coffin to the deep mountains of the night. Up to now, few imperial tombs of this period have been found in the archaeological community, which is directly related to the secret burial.

The most widespread legend is the secret burial of Zhu Yuanzhang. On his death, Zhu Yuanzhang left an oral order to the designated successor and grandson Zhu Yunwen, asking that the aftermath be dealt with as soon as possible. Zhu Yunji was obedient. On the seventh day after Zhu Yuanzhang fell, he was buried. There was a rare “quick burial” of ancient Chinese emperors. On the day of burial, the coffins were carried out at the thirteen gates of Nanjing at the same time and were buried together.

The most mysterious saying is that because the male host Zhu Yuanzhang was secretly buried elsewhere, there was only empress MA in the Xiaoling Mausoleum. Empress Ma guarded the empty mausoleum alone and often cried at night. Zhu Yuanzhang’s Secret burial place used to be said to be his highness Chaotian Palace in the west of Nanjing. However, no matter where Zhu Yuanzhang was buried, whether the folklore is true or false, the credibility of Zhu Yuanzhang’s Secret burial is still relatively high, and it will not be groundless. At least he likes secret burial.

Zhao Tuo’s anti theft means were very confusing and quite successful. He successfully confused the tomb robbers of previous dynasties, and even played the tomb robber emperor Sun Quan into a maze, but he couldn’t find it. Although people are eager to find Zhao Tuo’s tomb, there is still no trace so far.

Perhaps because Zhao Tuo’s tomb was too mysterious, someone in the Tang Dynasty compiled a absurd tomb robbing novel called Cui Wei’s biography. Cui Wei, the protagonist in the novel, got the help of immortals and entered Zhao Tuo’s tomb, which has a huge space. Cui Wei saw all kinds of extravagant furnishings and rare treasures inside, as well as the legendary four maidens offered by Wang Yao of Dong’ou and Wu Zhu of Minyue, who were buried for Zhao Tuo. Knowing that he had come in, Zhao Tuo also gave Cui Wei a concubine, Mrs. Tian, the daughter of King Tianheng of Qi, and gave him a night pearl of Western Asia Pacific food country.

However, not long ago, a professor of history at Jinan University put forward a bold assumption: Zhao Tuo’s tomb had been successfully visited by tomb robbers in the Tang Dynasty, based on the tomb robber novel “biography of Cui Wei”. The reason is that there is an amazing coincidence between the scene depicted in the tomb robbing novel and the archaeological excavation of the second generation Nanyue King’s tomb, which will be described below. If it is not for successful personal experience and narration, it is impossible to write the biography of Cui Wei.

The theft of Zhao Tuo’s tomb is only an academic hypothesis, which cannot replace archaeological discoveries. If Zhao Tuo’s tomb had not been stolen and destroyed, and it still existed somewhere, I think it would see the sun again.

? two thousand years later, the tomb of the second generation of South Vietnamese kings appeared

Zhao Tuo lived so long that his son died, leaving the throne to be inherited by his grandson Zhao Li (M Lin). After Zhao Heng succeeded to the throne, he was known as “the literary emperor of South Vietnam”. Zhao Heng was the second generation king of South Vietnam. He was in power for only more than ten years. He died of illness in 122 BC. Posterity has never known where his burial place is, and even the tomb robbers have not been found out.

But in the 1980s, Zhao Zhen’s tomb was unexpectedly discovered, and it was still intact. Zhao’s tomb has never been stolen, which should be related to the implementation of secret burial. If Sun Quan knew it underground, he must regret his death. Why didn’t he dig deep under the Elephant Hill at the beginning?

The discovery of Zhao Xuan’s tomb was also an accident. At that time, the general office of the Guangdong provincial government was preparing to build several dormitory buildings on Xianggang on the west side of Yuexiu Park on Jiefang North Road in the north of the old urban area of Guangzhou. When excavating the foundation wall pit of the building, a migrant worker encountered a hard object while using an iron hoe, which made the tiger’s mouth numb. He looked down and saw that it was a big piece.

Looking down from this, we found large stone slabs connected in pieces – Zhao Zhen’s tomb was born in the sky after sleeping for 2000 years.

On August 25th, 1983, with the approval of the State Administration of cultural relics, an archaeological team composed of Guangzhou Municipal Cultural Administration Commission, Guangdong Provincial Museum, and the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences comprehensively excavated Zhao Zhe’s tomb and unearthed a large number of precious cultural relics, including a gold seal “Emperor Wen Xing Xi”, which was originally privately engraved by the king of South Vietnam behind the central government of the Han Dynasty. No wonder Lu pheasant later adopted an economic blockade policy against South Vietnam, It turns out that he has two minds. These are currently collected in the Nanyue King’s Tomb Museum in Guangzhou. Zhao Zhen’s tomb has a huge space. The pit is 10.85 meters long from north to South and 12-13 meters wide in the front. It can be described as a huge cave. It is formed by drilling a 20 meter vertical pit from the top of the hill and then digging around. There are four ladies buried with them, and there are murals and several draperies in the cave. This is very similar to what Cui Wei saw in the biography of Cui Wei. Based on this, experts speculate that Zhao Tuo’s tomb was patronized by tomb robbers in the Tang Dynasty, which is quite reasonable.

? three generations of Nanyue kings married the promiscuous women of the Central Plains

The discovery of Zhao Tuo’s tomb caused a sensation across the country at that time, and also unveiled the mystery of the Nanyue state built by Zhao Tuo more than 2000 years ago.

In 122 BC, Zhao Zhen, who was seriously ill, knew that he would soon die, so he hurriedly sent a message to Chang’an to send a message to Zhao Yingqi, the son of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty who was the Su Wei. Zhao Yingqi then asked Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty for “home leave” and returned to Nanyue. In the same year, Zhao Zhen died, and Zhao Yingqi succeeded to the throne.

Sun Quan later successfully looted the tomb of the king of South Vietnam. The owner of the tomb was the third generation King Zhao Yingqi.

Zhao Yingqi’s husband and wife were very prosperous. Before going to Chang’an as a guard, she married a Nanyue woman and gave birth to her eldest son, Zhao Jiande. Later, I went to Chang’an and married Handan Ji ?) The daughter of the family gave birth to a son named Zhao Xing. The empress was made queen, and Zhao Xing became the prince. When Zhao Yingqi was in power, the Nanyue state was no longer in power. Yingqi was a tyrant who killed people wantonly and did not talk about benevolence, so he became a king for more than ten years.

In 115 BC, the infant Qi died, and the crown prince Zhaoxing succeeded to the throne, and his mother Xie became the queen mother. When he was not married to Zhao Yingqi and was a girl, he had sex with a man named Anguo Shaoji, who was quite open. After Zhao Yingqi’s death, Emperor Wu sent an guoshaoji to South Vietnam to meet with the Kan family, and the old relationship between the two rekindled. I suspect that Zhao Yingqi’s remarriage is a trap set by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty.

At that time, the rumor of his affair came out, and the people of South Vietnam did not believe him as the Empress Dowager. For fear of a coup in China, he wanted to rely on the forces of the Han Dynasty to stabilize the situation, and repeatedly persuaded Zhao Xing and his ministers to belong to the Han Dynasty. At that time, Lu Jia, the elder and Prime Minister of several dynasties, was a “Vietnam independence element”. The Kan family wanted to remove the obstacles in the plan to return to the Han Dynasty. Later, Lu Jia launched a rebellion, sent people to kill Zhao Xing, the Empress Dowager and the messengers of the Han Dynasty, and appointed Zhao Jiande, the eldest son born to Zhao Yingqi and his wife of South Vietnam, as the new king of South Vietnam. In 111 BC, Lu Jia and Zhao Jiande were captured and killed by the army sent by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, and the South Vietnam perished.

The Nanyue state, founded by Zhao Tuo, withdrew from history after 93 years and Five Dynasties of Nanyue kings.

? stole 36 jade seals from the tomb of the king of Nanyue

In 229 ad, 322 years after the fall of Nanyue, Sun Quan set his sights on the tomb of the king of Nanyue.

Sun Quan’s theft of the tomb of the Nanyue King was recorded in the book “jiaoguang spring and Autumn” by Wang Fan of the Jin Dynasty, which was not explained in the annals of the Three Kingdoms. This is not because Sun Quan’s tomb theft does not exist, but the book compiled by Chen Shou is too simple, and many valuable historical materials have not been included. Therefore, Liu Yilong, the emperor of Song Dynasty in the Southern Dynasty, couldn’t understand it, so he ordered peisongzhi, the Minister of the Chinese Communist Party, to make a supplementary note.

Although the tomb of Zhao Tuo, the king of South Vietnam, contained countless treasures, it had not been discovered until the Three Kingdoms period 300 years later because of his great attention to anti theft. According to “the spring and Autumn Annals of jiaoguang”, Sun Quan first arranged to engage in Wu Yu in Jiaozhou, Guangzhou at that time, to make public and private visits to collect information about the tomb of the Nanyue King. But after many days of investigation, I didn’t find any clues.

But Wu Yu did not get nothing. He found the tomb of Zhao Yingqi, the third-generation king of Nanyue. After hearing the report, Sun Quan gave instructions very simply. What are you waiting for? He immediately began to dig Zhao Yingqi’s tomb.

Sun Quan was really greedy for profit. At that time, it was during the scuffle of the Three Kingdoms. The northern Cao Wei group had always been eyeing Wu, but Sun Quan put aside the border security and sent general Lu Yu with thousands of soldiers to Guangzhou from thousands of miles, mountains and rivers, mountains and mountains. Under the official banner, they fought openly and stole the tomb of the king of South Vietnam.

Nanyue King’s tombs are all stone coffins, built on mountains, unlike the tombs in the Central Plains in Northern Shaanxi and Henan, which are surrounded by earth that is easy to dig. In 1983, when the tomb of Zhao Zhen was excavated, several Luoyang shovels of the archaeologists were curled or cracked by stones. Moreover, when the tomb path of the Nanyue King’s tomb was closed, large stones were used, the heaviest of which was nearly a ton, and oneortwo people could not open it at all. When excavating Zhao Chen’s tomb, they were blocked by hard stones. Without modern lifting equipment, how Lu Yu opened the tomb in those days is still a mystery. However, it is conceivable that this group of people must have spent the efforts of the boss to excavate the tomb of Yingqi. Although the funerary objects of Ying Qi are not as rich as those of Zhao Tuo, they are also rich in treasures. According to the records of the spring and Autumn Annals of Guangjiao, Ying Qi is wearing gold and jade clothes, and the decorations on his body are pure gold. There are 36 jade seals and gold seals, three copper swords, and there are exquisite dragon patterns on the copper swords.

After stealing Zhao Yingqi’s mausoleum, Sun Quan didn’t give up. He asked Lu Yu to turn over the mountains around Guangzhou. It was really three feet deep. Today, many hills near Guangzhou have been planed by Sun Quan’s men and horses. Fortunately, the tomb of the second-generation king of Nanyue, Zhao Peng, escaped a disaster by mistake, otherwise we would not be able to pass the ancient examination today.

? speculation caused by Sun Quan’s tomb theft in modern times

The story of Sun Quan’s tomb theft has been spread to this day, and even modern Sinology masters have participated in the speculation of Sun Quan’s tomb theft.

According to Mai Yinghao, deputy director of the Guangzhou Municipal Commission of cultural relics management, who once presided over and participated in the archaeology of the second generation Nanyue tombs, in May, 1916, Huang Kui Shi, a native of Taishan, Guangdong, bought a piece of land to build a house in Guigang, Dongshan, Guangzhou, and inadvertently found a large wooden coffin Tomb of the Western Han Dynasty when digging the foundation.

Many funerary objects, such as bronze, pottery and jade, were unearthed in this tomb. The wooden coffin board was engraved with words such as “Fu Yi”, “Fu Er”, “Fu Wu”, “Fu Shi” and “Fu 20”. Judging from the inscriptions carved on the unearthed pottery and bronze vessels, it can be concluded that it was the tomb of the early Western Han Dynasty, which was the time when the kingdom of South Vietnam existed.

This matter immediately caused a sensation in Guangzhou and even the whole Chinese academic circles at that time. Many researchers believe that this is the second generation “Huzhong, the literary king of Nanyue”, which Sun Quan sent General LV Yu to Guangzhou and failed to find. The famous scholar Wang Guowei also participated in the research at that time. But because there is no physical evidence to prove the identity of the tomb owner, the speculation cannot be confirmed. It was not until the discovery of the tomb of the second-generation Nanyue King in the 1980s that it was proved that the discussion and research that Wang Guowei participated in that year was wrong.

In the 1950s, according to the needs of the situation at that time, Guangzhou established the cultural relics management committee, under which there was an archaeological group. Since then, archaeologists have searched almost all the suburbs of Guangzhou, but like Sun Quan in those days, they returned in vain. Later, Mai Yinghao tried to enter the Xiangshan area where the second-generation Nanyue King’s tomb was found, but he gave up because he was in the “military restricted zone”.

Mai Yinghao felt some regret that he did not take the initiative to discover the tomb of the Nanyue King. Sun Quan should have been in this mood at that time, right?

? tomb robbers in Song Dynasty stole the “Tomb of king sun”

Finally, Sun Quan’s tomb was also found later. At the southern foot of Zijin Mountain in the eastern suburb of Nanjing today, it is located on the Gaoling plum blossom mountain in front of the left side of the Xiaoling Mausoleum of Zhu Yuanzhang, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, which is very close to the destroyed tomb of Wang Jingwei, the traitor of the Republic of China. This is completely consistent with the historical records that when Zhu Yuanzhang built the Xiaoling Mausoleum, he said that Sun Quan was a hero and asked him to guard the mausoleum.

A friend of Nanjing Zhongshan cemetery management office once talked with me about this. At that time, the exploration of Sun Quan’s tomb was completed as a subject, which was discovered by researchers of the Institute of seismic engineering of Jiangsu Seismological Bureau using magnetic survey technology. Researchers found that the underground palace of Sun Quan’s tomb was shaped like a, and the tomb path was westward, all of which were made of mountains and stones. The amount of work was very large, and a lot of manpower should have been used at that time. As for whether Sun Quan’s tomb was stolen, it is still unknown, and it is estimated that it is difficult to escape.

But it is certain that Sun Quan’s brother sun CE’s tomb must have been stolen. According to the record of Wu Fenglu by Huang shengzeng, a Ming Dynasty man, “since Zhengde, ancient tombs in Wuzhong, such as the tombs of the princess of the Liang Dynasty, the tombs of the grandson of Panmen, and the mother tombs of Zhang Shicheng in the city, have all been distributed by Shi Hao, and thousands of gold and jade artifacts have been buried by him, opening the end of the excavation of Wu people.” The tomb of king sun here is the tomb of sun CE.

The theft of sun CE’s tomb, as Huang shengzeng wrote, was not the first. As early as the Song Dynasty, sun CE’s tomb was visited by tomb robbers, and the funerary objects were excavated out. Sun CE was buried three miles outside the gate of Suzhou after his death. The theft of sun CE’s tomb was reflected in the article “the tomb of king sun” by TENGWEI of Song Dynasty. At that time, after the tomb robbers dug up sun CE’s tomb, they got a lot of gold and jade treasures, including silver cups and gold scratches. Later, the government caught the tomb robber and handed over the stolen treasure. However, the treasure handed over was not collected from the national treasury, but was appropriated by Zhu Xu, the then powerful minister. Since then, sun CE’s tomb has been repeatedly looted, beyond recognition, and turned into an official kiln burning porcelain.

There is a coincidence. Finally, according to new data, Sun Yat Sen, the interim president of the Republic of China, who was buried in Zijin Mountain with Sun Quan, is a descendant of Sun Quan. There is a superstition here. Historically, the first emperor buried in Nanjing is Sun Quan, and so far, the last “emperor” buried in Nanjing is Sun Yat Sen. is this a kind of causal reincarnation?!

Attachment 1:

Tomb robbers meet Wu Rui’s descendants by chance

At the beginning and end of Huang Dynasty, Wu people made the tomb of Wu Rui, the king of Changsha, and built a temple for Sun Jian with his expertise in Linxiang. Rui’s face is as fresh as life, and her clothes are immortal. After Yu hair see Wu Gang said: “what kind of Changsha King Wu Rui, but slightly short ears.” Gang Quran said, “it’s the ancestor. Why do you see it?” Seeing what he said, Gang said, “is it better to bury?” Answer: “that is more buried.” From Rui’s death to Zhongfa for more than 400 years, gang, Rui’s 16th grandchild. (quoted from “Shi Shuo” issued by Guo of Jin Dynasty)

Attachment II:

Tomb of Zhao Tuo

According to legend, Zhao Tuo, the king of Nanyue, was buried in Yushan, Guangzhou, from jilonggang to the north of the courtyard, connecting the mountains and mountains. They are all called Tuo tombs. “Jiaoguang spring and Autumn” said: Tuo was born with a Book of worship and called fan, and died with a mysterious tomb, which is also true. Sun Quan sent Jiaozhou for Wu Yu’s visit, but he didn’t know where it was. The tomb of the Ming King’s infant Qi was excavated. It was decorated with jade boxes and beads. It was decorated with gold. There were thirty-six jade seals, thirty-six gold seals, three copper swords, and it was as rotten as the Dragon script. And the tomb of King Wen Hu is unknown. There was a big hill behind Tuo’s tomb. The Qin Dynasty occupier said that there was the spirit of the son of heaven. The first emperor sent envoys to chisel through the hill, which was more than 20 feet deep and bled for several days. Today, the chisel looks like a saddle and is called Ma’anshan.

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