Uncover the true Ma Chao: mediocre and brutal martial arts, less wolf ambition

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Ma Chao, one of the five tiger generals under Liu Bei in the romance of the Three Kingdoms, is Guan Zhang, Zhao Ma Huang, ranking about fourth. This is because it is estimated that Guan, Zhang and Zhao will not lose to him in the fight. At most, they are also tied. After all, old Huang Zhong is older. I’m afraid he may not be able to defeat Ma Mengqi’s youth and strength.

In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, Ma Chao and his father Ma Teng, as well as Ma Teng’s good friend Han Sui, all fought in Xiliang and drove their troops straight to Chang’an. First, they plotted to defeat the chaotic parties Li, Guo, fan, Zhang and others under Dong Zhuo, but unfortunately they were defeated and returned to Liangzhou. Then Ma Teng and several of his nephews were once again ordered by Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty to lead troops to destroy Cao Cao. As a result, the secret was leaked, and Cao Cao killed Ma Dai, his nephew, who escaped to Xiliang alone.

Ma Chao stayed in Xiliang at that time. Hearing the news, he and Han Sui started to kill Ben Chang’an and avenged his father Ma Teng and several brothers.

In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, Cao Cao has always been afraid of Ma Shi. In order to escape from the Red Cliff during the battle of the Red Cliff so as not to burn jade and stone, Pang Tong taught him to spread rumors that Ma Shi in Xiliang was rebellious, which made Cao Cao send him to Tongguan, so he could avoid the disaster of the Red Cliff fire.

Later, after Ma Chao and others really started to fight, Cao Cao personally took up the army, and made a number of famous Cao camp generals such as Xu Huang, Xu Chu and others. During the fierce battle with Ma Chao at Tongguan, Cao Cao was killed by Ma Chao, cut his beard and abandoned his robe, went down the river to fight for a boat to escape, and so on. Several times, he almost died under Ma Chao’s gun, and was in a mess. Later, Cao Cao repeatedly used tricks to alienate Han Sui and Ma Chao, and Fang defeated Ma Chao. Ma Chao was defeated back to Xiliang.

Two years later, Ma Chao launched his army again, but this time it was only in Longyou. Before he left Yongliang, he was defeated by local officials such as Yang Fu, Jiang Xu, Zhao ang, etc. Ma Chao had no basis, so he had to go to Zhang Lu in Hanzhong. At Zhang Lu’s place, he repeatedly asked to send troops to punish Cao Fucheng, and several generals under Zhang Lu were not at peace with him. When Zhang Lu sent him to attack Liu Bei, he surrendered to Mr. Liu Bei, the Great Ear Duke. Liu Zhang, a herdsman in Yizhou, heard that Ma Chao had voted for Liu Bei and came to attack Chengdu. At the moment, his mind was in a mess and he raised the state to surrender. Therefore, Liu Bei won Yizhou.

Since then, at Liu Bei’s place, Ma Chao has been guarding the western line because he has always had a good relationship with Xiliang qianghu. Soon, Ma Chao died at the age of 47.

In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, Ma Chao is described several times as “like a crown of jade, with eyes like meteors, tiger body, ape arm, tiger belly and wolf waist”. He is really handsome, young, fierce and invincible, and because he likes wearing white very much, he got the name of “Jin Ma Chao”. When he was a teenager, he went with his father to fight against the party. Later, because Cao Cao killed his father and his brothers and nephews who were ordered by the emperor to fight against the national thief, he took revenge for his father and brother, and repeatedly set up troops to fight against Cao Cao. It can be said that it is a combination of national hatred and family hatred, just like a righteous and positive image& lt;!&# 8211; end–& gt;

In fact, it seems to me that Luo Guanzhong is protecting him. It is estimated that it is to vilify Cao Cao, or there is any other intention, so it gives us a move to move the world. In fact, in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, that is, Ma Chao, who is more real in history, should be a person with wolf ambition, cruelty and less planning, who has lost a brave name. At least, he is definitely not a good person, let alone a man of great righteousness.

Speaking of this, we need to start with Ma Teng and Han Sui.

Ma Teng, with the word Shoucheng, is a descendant of General Ma Yuan of Han Fubo. Because of his meritorious service in the war, he has been stationed in Longyou from a cloth cloth cloth to a general of the West and East. Han Sui, with the word Wenyue, was opposed by Beigong Boyu of Xiliang, led by Bian Zhang and him, and the number was more than 100000. The court could not rule, and Bian Zhang died first. The court granted Han Sui the title of Zhenxi general. Ma Teng and he first became brothers with different surnames. Later, because his subordinates attacked each other and turned against each other, they began to fight. First, Ma Teng won, Han Sui retreated, and then Han Sui made a comeback to defeat Ma Teng and kill Ma Teng’s wife. Since then, the war between the two ministries continued year after year, and it was not until Zhong you, a highly respected Sili colonel in Sanfu and Kansai, came to mediate that it came to an end.

Later, when it came to the battle of Guandu, Yuan Shao’s nephew, senior cadre and General Guo Yuan rushed to Chang’an, Zhong Youtong showed Ma Teng, and Ma Teng made Ma Chao lead 10000 elite troops to work with Zhong Yao to defeat senior cadres and Hun Shan Yu, and Ma Chao will behead pound, his Senior General Guo Yuan (Guo Yuan is the nephew of Zhong Yao). Later, Gao Gan and others attacked again and defeated Zhong Yao, Ma Teng, Ma Chao and the generals of Kansai. Cao Cao conquered Jingzhou and Ma Teng lived in the middle of the pass. In the 13th year of Jian’an (208), in order to avoid the chaos of the separation of the warlords in Kansai, Zhong Yao enlisted Ma Teng into the capital. Ma Teng was indeed old, so he was greeted and escorted by two thousand local officials to the capital to stay in the guard. Cao Cao immediately declared him Wei Wei. Ma Chao’s brothers Ma Xiu and Ma tie were granted the titles of Fengche Du Wei and Qiqi Du Wei respectively, and moved to Ye County with Ma Teng and his family. He also worshiped Ma Chao as a partial general, and left him alone in Kansai to command Ma Teng’s troops. Han Sui also sent his son to the capital at the same time.

However, in the 16th year of Jian’an (211), Ma Chao even ignored the life and death of his father Ma Teng in Ye County and his brothers Ma Xiu, Ma tie and other family members, and brazenly launched a rebellion.

The direct consequence of this action, of course, was that his father and two brothers in Ye County, as well as all members of the Ma family there, were jailed and beheaded for conspiracy. There were about a hundred people, and Cao Cao was worthy of the Ma family,

It was not until May of the next year that Ma Teng and others were beheaded. Not to mention whether the association system of the autocratic monarchy society and the practices of the three barbarians were right, but in view of the situation at that time, the central government of the Han Dynasty obviously made sense to ask the local princes to take hostages in order to avoid the separation of the powerful and powerful. While Ma Chao did not do anything against him in the case of the central government of the Han Dynasty, he “rebelled against Han Sui, Yang Qiu, Li Kan, Cheng Yi and others” just because of the false reason of “doubt you want to attack yourself”. The purpose of this action, of course, is to try to separate the regime and dominate Xiliang all the time, and be a local emperor, just looking at his later actions when the Tongguan war was unfavorable:

Chaodeng Tun Weinan sent a letter to ask for peace to the west of the river, and the public was not allowed. March across the Wei River in September. Supernumerary challenge, but not allowed; Solid please cut the land, ask to send Ren Zi.

We know that he regarded the land of the Han Dynasty as his Ma Chao’s private land. Otherwise, why did he say “please make peace by cutting the west of the river” and “Gu please cut the land”. What he “cut” was the land of the Han Dynasty, not the private property of his Ma family. As the Prime Minister of the Han Dynasty, Cao Cao naturally would not accept such an absurd negotiation request. When he had launched a rebellion before, he even asked Han Sui to abandon his relatives in the Han dynasty like him to rebel together:

Chao said about:… Today Chao abandoned his father and took the general as his father. The general should also abandon his son and take Chao as his son.

According to the above, Ma Chao really deserves the reputation of “disloyalty and unfilial”. It is precisely because of his actions that I say that Ma Chao is an ambitious man who completely ignores the life and death of his family in order to achieve his personal goals, which can be called Wolf ambition.

As for Ma Chao’s schemlessness, I think we all know that there is no need to say more. Because no book says how wise he is, not even romance or history books. Cao Cao’s attitude was clear when he saw a steady stream of reinforcements coming at Tongguan:

Every time a movie arrives, the public will be happy. After the thief was broken, the generals asked him why. The public replied: in the long run of the central Shaanxi plain, if the thieves follow the dangers and obstacles and levy them, they can’t be determined in less than a year or two. Now all come together. Although there are many of them, no one can submit to them. The army has no suitable Lord, and can be destroyed at one stroke. For the sake of making a difference, I am happy. See records of the Three Kingdoms, Wei Shu, Emperor Wu Ji.

If Ma Chao is wise and Cao Cao is not sure of victory, how can he be happy with the arrival of a large number of reinforcements? How can there be a saying that “one can be destroyed at one stroke, it is easy to make a difference, and I am happy”. Later, when he was defeated and set up his second army in Xiliang, he simply failed to get out of Yong Liang, and was defeated by the local officers and soldiers. “There was no basis for advancing and retreating”, and he was in a mess. Therefore, it should be an indisputable fact to say that Ma Chao had no plan.

Let’s talk about his cruelty, on the one hand, because he was directly responsible for the death of his father and more than 100 members of the Ma family. On the other hand, when he raised the army for the second time, he not only killed many senior officials who had surrendered to him, including the prefect and the assassin, but also killed many families of officials of the Han Dynasty who resisted him. One of them, Jiang Xu’s mother, a Fuyi general, was caught by him and scolded him like this: “you carry your father’s rebellious son and the Jie thief who killed you. How long will the heaven and earth allow you to live without dying early, and how dare you look at people with your face!” So “super angry, kill it”. Just from the above two examples, it should not be too much to say that Ma Chao is cruel.

Now let’s take a look at Ma Chao’s Yong name. One example that can illustrate the problem is that he had a dialogue with Cao Cao in front of the battle at Tongguan. At that time, “Cao Gong and Sui, Chao Shan and Ma Huiyu, overburdened by their strength, rushed forward to catch Cao Gong, and Xu Chu, the general around Cao Gong, was angry and looked forward to it, but Chao was afraid to move”. It seems that there were four people on both sides at that time: Ma Chao, Han Sui, Cao Cao Cao and Xu Chu. The situation was two for two, But just because Xu Chu stared at the “Jin machao” with the name of courage, Ma Chao “didn’t dare to move”. I’m afraid this reputation will be in trouble, because he was just stared at and didn’t even have the courage to try. How can he say “brave”?

In addition, there is another thing that is rarely known, that is, as early as in the early years of Jian’an, during the war between Ma Teng and Han Sui, he and Yan Xing, Han Sui’s son-in-law, fought alone. The history book says:

At the beginning of Jian’an, it was about to attack Ma Teng. Tengzichao is also called Jian. In his profession, he stabbed the spear and broke it. Because he broke the spear, he surpassed the item and killed it several times.

At that time, if Yan Xing’s spear had not broken, I was afraid that Ma Chao would immediately have a hole in his neck and died in the West. And this Yan Xing, probably few people know it, because he didn’t even have a formal biography in the history books, and there was no such person in the romance. It shouldn’t be too much to say that he was an unknown person. Everyone doesn’t know it’s normal, but the magnificent “jinmachao” was defeated by him, and it’s a little unreasonable to pick up a life because the other party’s spear was broken. In this way, the so-called “jinmachao” is no more brave than you. The reputation of the brave general can really be said to be in vain.

From this point of view, there should be no mistake in saying that Ma Chao is a person with wolf ambition, cruelty and less planning, and has lost a reputation for courage.

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