Uncover the truth behind Guan Yu’s tragic loss of Jingzhou

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I recently read an article written by Mr. jiangxingyu in the Xinmin Evening News titled “Liu Bei unites sun to reject Cao with no end in sight”, which was quite inspired. But I also feel that Guan Yu’s loss of Jingzhou is not only a problem that the sun Liu alliance has no beginning and no end. The loss of Jingzhou by Shu is quite complicated. There are both Guan Yu’s own problems and many hidden twists and turns of historical facts that are rarely known. Now I don’t think it’s simple. I’d like to ask for hidden information according to historical books such as the annals of the Three Kingdoms and the general guide to the rule of Zizhi. One of them is good for everyone, and the other is just Mr. Jiang.

Guan Yu’s improper command eventually led to his death

Guan Yu won his first battle in the forbidden area, putting the Jingzhou army in an active position. In this case, Guan Yu overestimated his own strength and mistakenly believed that caoren, who was entrenched in Fancheng, had become a turtle in a jar and was “bound to break”. Therefore, instead of concentrating his troops to quickly wipe out caoren’s main force in Fancheng, he sent his troops south to cross the Han River, “send LV Chang, a general of Weiwei, to Xiangyang” and sent a wandering army to Jiaxia near Xudu. As a result, Fancheng was unable to attack and Xiangyang was unable to defeat. As a result, the soldiers were tired and their morale was low.

In August of the 24th year of Jian’an, “it rained for more than ten days, the Han river overflowed, and fan Xiaping was five or six feet long. (CAO) thousands of benevolent men and horses guarded the city, and the number of people in the city was not small.” Under such favorable conditions, Guan Yu could not break through Xiangfan. In the dry season in October, he had no hope of winning. And Wei general xuhuang and his reinforcements have arrived near Fancheng. “Zizhi Tongjian” contains: “Huang Ying is three feet away from Yuwei. He wrote a letter to (CAO) Ren about the tunnel and arrow flying, and the information is connected with data.” This strengthened the confidence of the Wei army in defending the city, and made changes in the strength of both sides in favor of Cao Jun but not Guan Yujun. Therefore, it was meaningless for Guan Yu to continue to besiege Xiangfan. Moreover, Cao Cao has disclosed to Guan Yu Sun Quan’s plan to sneak attack on Jingzhou. If Guan Yu could quickly return to the army to save Jiangling, Jingzhou would be safe and Yu’s army would be complete. Unfortunately, Guan Yu could not judge the changes in the battlefield situation and “hesitated not to go”. As a result, the Jingzhou army was not only frustrated by xuhuang, but also delayed the opportunity to rescue Nanjun.

The fatal mistake Guan Yu made was that after learning the news of the fall of Jingzhou, he was desperate to recapture Nanjun. Jiangling and Gongan were not lost by the defeat of Yu army, but by the surrender of two generals fushiren and Mi Fang. Wu army won two cities without bloodshed, without losing a single soldier. The morale is booming. What is more stupid is that on the way back to Jiangling, Guan Yu “made people know about (LV) Meng” and accused him of violating the alliance. LV Meng took the opportunity to launch the psychological attack tactics, “meet his emissary with kindness,” and make him “travel around the city, ask questions from every family, or write letters in writing.” After the messenger returned to the camp, Yu’s subordinates “privately consulted with each other and knew that their family was all right. Seeing that they had been treated too peacefully,” they made “Guan Yu’s officials and scholars have no desire to fight.”

“Jiang Biao Zhuan” said: “Yu Hao Zuo’s biography, allegorical recitations are catchy However, from the actual situation, Guan Yu knew little about the war cases that took place in the spring and Autumn period. In 482 BC, “the king of Wu (fuchai) met the princes in Huangchi in the north,” Gou Jian, the king of Yue, took advantage of Xu to send troops to attack the capital of Wu, “captured the prince friend of Wu,… The people of Wu were defeated by Wang fuchai, and fuchai hated his news. Or to vent his words, the king of Wu was angry and beheaded seven people under the curtain.” Why did Fu Chai come to kill the messenger? Obviously, it is for fear of leaking information and shaking the morale of the army. If Guan Yu had a little mind and it was too late to block the news, why would he send envoys to LV Meng. The tens of thousands of troops led by Guan Yu were not attacked by LV Meng on the way back to the division, but scattered as they walked. When they walked through the wheat city, “the soldiers were all disbanded, and there were still more than ten cavalries.” What a clumsy military command this is. It can be seen that Mr. zhudawei’s judgment that Guan Yu is “the only famous general in the ages” is simply untenable.

Relationship between Guan Yu and his subordinates

During the period of guarding Jingzhou, Guanyu’s relations with the eastern Wu deteriorated and eventually turned into enemies. What about his relations with his subordinates? When Guan Yu attacked Xiangfan in the north, MI Fang and fushiren stayed behind Jiangling and the Public Security Bureau. However, Guanyu had a very bad relationship with the two generals, who assumed the important task of defending the base camp. As a result, MI Fang and Fu Shiren defected to the enemy and offered the city to Lvmeng.

According to the biography of Guan Yu, “Mi Fang, the southern Prefecture’s prefect, is in Jiangling. The general, Shi rentun, is in charge of public security. In fact, Yu despises Yu. When Yu leaves the army, Fang and Ren provide military funds. Without learning to save him, Yu says that ‘it should be cured’. Fang and Ren are afraid. Therefore, Quan Yin lures Fang, Ren, Fang and Ren to welcome power.” It can be seen that due to the rebellion of MI and Fu, LV Meng almost captured Nanjun without bloodshed.

In fact, before he attacked Xiangfan in the north, Guan Yu did not dare to take it lightly. He made careful arrangements for the defense of Jingzhou. First of all, “Yu asked fan to stay in reserve, fearing that (Lu) would be followed by mengtu.” Secondly, Guan Yu built many “garrisons” along the river in Jiangling and Gongan. Once he found the enemy, he could raise fire and cast wolf smoke. Third, during the period of guarding Jingzhou, Guan Yu built two cities, Jiangling and Gongan, to prevent the attack of the Wu army, and built them into inner and outer cities, forming two solid lines of defense. Moreover, Jiangling is only 350 miles away from Fancheng. At that time, it only took more than a day to get back by riding a light horse for 300 miles a day and night. Therefore, despite LV Meng’s ingenious tactics, “Yu didn’t know that he would make white clothes to be used as a scull for the SHANG Jia people, and would travel both day and night until Yu had set up a garrison by the river and tied them up.” However, Hu Sansheng made a note in Zizhi Tongjian: “although the tunhou was bound, mi (Fang) Fu (Shiren) was free from treachery, and the feather could still be heard.” It can be seen that as long as Mi Fang and fushiren stick to the city and do not betray the enemy, Guan Yu quickly returns to the army and attacks the Wu army back and forth with the garrison of Jiangling and public security, it is difficult to predict whether Guan Yu and LV Meng will win or lose.

So why did Mi Fang and fushiren turn away at the critical moment? In addition to the surprise of LV Meng’s army, the main reason is that “there is a gap with Yu” and “Yu despises himself”. Since Guan Yu despised MI and Fu, he should not entrust such an important rear base to the two generals he had always despised. Although Mi Fang and Fu both had deep political backgrounds (MI Fang was Liu Bei’s wife and brother, and Fu Shiren was Liu Bei’s hometown), as the commander-in-chief of the whole army, they should have a broad mind and tolerance. Liu Bang destroyed Chu, relied on Xiao He to preside over Guanzhong, Liu Xiu to succeed, relied on Kou Xun to preside over Hanoi, Cao Cao to unify the north, and relied on Zao only to preside over the cantonment of Xu county. Only Guanyu’s rear base is built on the crater. During the confrontation between Liu Bang and Xiangyu in Chenggao and Guangwu, “the prime minister who worked hard for several envoys”. In order to win over Xiao He, so as not to make him think the wrong way. When Guanyu and caoren confronted each other in Fancheng, they ordered Fang and Ren to provide military funds. Fang and Ren did not send the “military funds” to the front line in time. Guanyu was furious and declared that “it should be governed.” This practice is tantamount to making MI and Fu, who had a “gap” with Guan Yu, more “afraid and uneasy”. Once the situation changes, how can they be prevented from turning over.

The former quote from the biography of Guan Yu said: “so (sun) Quan Yin lures Fang and Ren, and Fang and Ren make people welcome power.” There is also a hidden problem in this historical data, that is, besides “Yin luring” Mi Fang and fushiren, does Sun Quan “Yin luring” other important figures in Jingzhou? Although there is no specific explanation in the historical materials, Pan Jun, who has always been at odds with Guan Yu, deserves attention.

Pan Jun was a native of Wuling, Jingzhou. He first worked in Jiangxia County under Liu Biao, and then under Liu Bei. “Prepare to enter Sichuan and stay in the state of Dian,” the public security bureau is the governing Office of Jingzhou. Since “stay in the state of Dian,” Pan Jun must stay in the Public Security Bureau. Fushiren’s defection from the public security bureau is such a big event that his party must participate in and plan together. For whom? The most likely one is Pan Jun, because Pan Jun, who is engaged in the governance of Jingzhou, has a heavy responsibility. Without his nod, fushiren would not dare to “welcome power” rashly. In this regard, Wang Maohong was quoted in the biography of Pan Jun in the annals of the Three Kingdoms as saying: “Pan Jun is regarded as the leader of zhaolie (Liu Bei) and stays in the state. The responsibility is not light. He guards the public security together with scholars’ benevolence. How can pan Jun not know about the defection of scholars’ benevolence? It’s OK to listen to the surrender of scholars’ benevolence after learning about their stay in the state?… so Jun should be the same as Mi Fang and scholars’ benevolence. It’s not wrong to ridicule and belittle (Yang) plays?” The so-called “ridicule and demotion of Yang Xi” refers to the words in the praise of officials in the Han Dynasty written by Yang Xi: “Pan Jun inherited the Ming Dynasty and was also a native of Wuling. The first Lord came to Shu and thought that Jingzhou ruled China and stayed in the state, which was not the same as Guan Yu. Sun Quan attacked Yu, so he came to Wu.” It can be seen from this that Pan Jun “was also not mu with Guan Yu”, indicating that his relationship with Guan Yu was consistent with MI Fang and fushiren.

Since Sun Quan knew that MI Fang, fushiren and Guan Yu had “gaps” and “Yin SEDUCTION”, how could Sun Quan miss this opportunity to “Yin seduce” Pan Jun and Guan Yu, who were in the middle of Jingzhou’s governance and “learned to stay in the state”? Mi Fang and fushiren, as their first contributions to welcoming the surrender, were hired in the state of Wu, but they were not as good subordinates as pan Jun. one of them was “welcoming the surrender”. Sun Quan was “a lieutenant general of Baijun’s auxiliary army, granted soldiers, moved the general Fenwei, and was granted the Marquis of Changting and qianting. He was honored as Shaofu, was granted the Marquis of Liuyang, and moved to Taichang”. If Pan Jun had not made more contributions to “welcoming the fall” than MI and Fu, how could Pan Jun’s official career be so prosperous.

Guan Yu not only had a bad relationship with his subordinates, but also had a tense relationship with other generals and officials in Sichuan. For example, “Liu Feng, the son of the crown family of Marquis benluo, first came to Jingzhou and raised the Feng as his son without heir.”. Since Guan Yu and Liu Bei “sleep in the same bed, en Ruo brother”, then he has an uncle nephew relationship with Liu Bei’s adopted son Liufeng. However, it was Liu Feng, who had an uncle and nephew with Guan Yu. At the critical moment when “Guan Yu surrounded Fancheng and Xiangyang, repeatedly called (Liu) Feng and (MEng) Da, and ordered the troops to help themselves”, Liu Feng, the deputy general and the supreme court official, who was only a short distance from the Xiangfan front, pretended to be deaf and mute and resisted Yu’s life. “Feng and Da CI are attached to the mountain county at the beginning. They are unshakable and will not accept Yu’s life.”. It can be seen that Guanyu had an extremely tense relationship with Liu Feng, Mengda and others, which led to Feng and Da supporting the army and being mediocre, leaving Guanyu to ignore his “repeated calls” and sit on the sidelines. In short, Guan Yu made many mistakes when he was guarding Jingzhou and attacking Xiangfan, and his character was “rigid and self-confident” and “proud of scholar bureaucrats for being kind to soldiers”. Therefore, Chen Shou said that he “takes defeat by shortness and rationalizes numbers frequently”.

The problem of not sending troops to save Sichuan

Guan Yu launched the Xiangfan campaign. Although the seven armies were flooded and shocked China, it eventually led to the fall of Jingzhou and Sun Quan killed him. A lot of the secret is still puzzling. Before and after the Xiangfan campaign, Wu and Wei envoys kept coming and going, plotting to attack Guan Yu. It can be said that they worked hard and cooperated tacitly. However, Liu Bei and Zhugeliang knew nothing about this and did not make any specific military, logistics and diplomatic deployment and support for Guan Yu. What is even more puzzling is that when Cao Cao’s Pro unification army stationed in Mopei and continuously dispatched Yu Jin, pound and Xu Huang to reinforce Fancheng, such a huge military action, the Shuhan regime actually stood on the sidelines and did not take any countermeasures. Finally, when Guan Yu lost Maicheng and faced the annihilation of the whole army, the reinforcements in Sichuan were still delayed. This has aroused speculation among later generations. Mr. zhangtaiyan, a master of traditional Chinese culture, put forward the viewpoint that “Shu made a false hand at the people of Wu, and killed Guan Yu”. Although Zhang’s viewpoint is a hypothesis, it is not unreasonable. For example, Mr. tianyuqing, a senior historian, also holds similar views. He said in a probe into the history of the Qin, Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties: “there are many historical works that are taboo for sages in the annals of the Three Kingdoms. The author of the annals of the Three Kingdoms is Guan Yu’s death.” Yu was defeated and died, and Jingzhou abandoned its defense. History readers always have doubts. Think about why, talk about its responsibility. Blaming Liu Feng is not enough to explain this doubt. People naturally think of Liu and Ge, especially Liu Zhang Taiyan began to get rid of his coyness. He said that the Shu people killed Guan Yu, who could not be controlled by the changing world, and that Liu Bei was not responsible for it. Whether Zhang’s theory is true or not, Gu doesn’t care about it. His reckless academic attitude is what today’s historians should have. ” I think what Mr. Tian said is that there is no doubt that Liu Bei should bear the main responsibility for the loss of Jingzhou and the defeat of Guan Yu. It does not even rule out the possibility that Liu Bei cut Guan Yu off with the hands of Wu people.

As the No. 1 general under Liu Bei, Guan Yu is arrogant, domineering and arrogant. It’s not to say that ordinary generals in Sichuan don’t pay attention to him, even though he sometimes resents his lord Liu Bei. The book of Shu says: “at the beginning, Liu Bei was hunting with Cao Gong in Xuchang. In the process of hunting, the crowd scattered. Yu advised him to prepare to kill the Gong, but he would not follow. And in Xiakou, floating on the river bank, Yu angrily said:” in the past, if you had followed Yu’s words, you would not be trapped today. “When Liu Bei was in Xuchang, he was under house arrest by Cao Cao and was still in the mouth of a tiger. If he was careless, he could be killed and prepared to throw a mouse repellent. How dare he take rash action. Guan Yu didn’t know why. He was so angry that he blamed Liu Bei for not killing Cao Cao at that time. Isn’t that unreasonable!

In the 19th year of Jian’an, Liu Bei attacked Yizhou, and Ma Chao from Xiliang came to invest in it. Ma Chao was a well-known tiger general in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Liu Bei was overjoyed. He immediately named him general of Pingxi, the same position as Guan Yu. Guan Yu, who was far away in Jingzhou, was extremely dissatisfied with this and immediately wrote to Zhugeliang, “Ask the super talented people who can compare with others. Knowing that Yu Hu was in front of him, he answered:” Meng Qi is also a scholar and martial artist. He is a hero of the first generation. The disciples of Tsing (cloth) and Peng (Yue) should compete with Yide, even before they have a beard. Yu Mei has a beard, so Liang is called ‘beard’. Yu province has a great book to show the guests. ” Due to the coordination of Zhugeliang, Guan Yu’s dissatisfaction with Liu Bei’s reuse of machao was relieved.

In the 24th year of Jian’an, Liu Bei claimed to be the king of Hanzhong and wanted to appoint Huang Zhong as the later general. “Zhugeliang said that the first lord said: ‘the reputation of loyalty is not the same as that of Guan Yu and Ma Chao. Now, the same horse and Zhang Fei are close, and they can see their skills. Guan Yao is afraid that he will be unhappy when he hears about it. Is it all right?’ the first lord said: ‘I should solve it myself.'” Fei Shizhuan said that Liu Bei “sent (Fei)” The poem worships Guan Yu as the former general, and Yu hears that Huang Zhong is the later general. Yu angrily says, “the eldest husband will not join the ranks of the veterans and will not be worshipped.” Guan Yu scolded Huang Zhong as a “veteran” (in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the status of a soldier was low, and “Bing” became an insulting title. For example, Liu Ba called Zhang Fei a “soldier” because he was a martial man; Peng Pei called Liu Bei “Lao Ge”), which was a sign of extreme anger. Who listed himself with this “veteran”, of course, was Liu Bei. Therefore, Guan Yu’s anger was not directed at Huang Zhong, but at Liu Bei.

It can be seen from this that Guan Yu was dissatisfied with Liu Bei. Of course, Liu Bei could not have been unaware of this. However, Guan Yu, with a heavy army in his hand, guarded Jingzhou. Not only will it be difficult to control after the easy generation, but Liu Bei also felt uncertain when he was still alive. What should I do? How to deal with this problem will surely be put on the agenda of Liu Bei’s thinking.

As mentioned above, Liu Bei appointed Mi Fang as the Nanjun prefect to guard Jiangling and fushiren as the general to garrison the public security. Besides these two cities are important military sites, is there any deeper consideration? I suspect so. Mi Fang, with the word Zifang, is a native of the East China Sea and the brother of Mrs MI, Liu Bei’s wife. Fushiren, born in Guangyang, is a general and valued by Liu Bei. Liu Bei probably used Mi Fang and fushiren as Guan Yu’s supervisors. In particular, MI Zhu and Mi fang had a very special relationship with Liu Bei. When Liu Bei was appointed as Xuzhou herdsman, he was supported by Mi Zhu and Mi Fang. When Liu Bei was in a dilemma because of Lu Bu’s defeat, MI Zhu capital used “gold and silver currency to help military capital”, and Liu Bei “relied on it to recover.”. Mi Zhu also “entered the younger sister and became the wife of the former Lord,… Zhu Difang was the Prime Minister of Pengcheng. They all went to the government and dealt with the former Lord.”. When Liu Bei acquired Yizhou, he became an Han General after MI Zhu, ranking above Zhugeliang, a military general. It can be seen that MI Zhu had a very close relationship with Liu Bei, and Mi Fang was no exception. Therefore, it is no accident that Liu Bei took Mi Fang as the Nanjun prefect. It is likely that his wife and brother monitored Guan Yu. Of course, Guan Yu knew Liu Bei’s “intention”, so he never gave false words to MI and Fu, who were successful because of their nepotism and hometown relations. He not only despised and despised them, but even said that “they should be governed”.

After Guan Yu flooded the seven armies, “Lu hunmin, sun Lang and others made a riot, killed the county master, attached Guan Yu to the south, gave him the wolf seal, gave him soldiers, and became a bandit. He often responded to Yu from the south, and Yu shocked China. The king of Wei proposed moving Xu du to avoid his sharpness.”. Faced with such a situation, Liu Bei is naturally excited. However, while excited, I don’t know if he has any hidden worries, that is, Guan Yu, who is already very bossy in ordinary days, is likely to be more proud of his achievements. At that time, he will have big worries. At this time, Liu Bei’s year was approaching, and his son Liu Chan was cowardly. Therefore, after his adopted son Liu Feng lost the three eastern prefectures, “Zhugeliang thought that the seal was strong and fierce, but after changing the world, it was difficult to control him. He advised the Lord to get rid of it because of this.”. Liu Bei readily agreed, so he “sealed himself up and made himself adjudicated”.

Since Liu Bei was able to execute Liu Feng without hesitation, regardless of the feelings of his father and son, how could Liu Bei consider his so-called “brotherly” relationship with Guan Yu? Besides, Guan Yu was much more “fierce” than Liu Feng. After the change of the world, Liu Adou could not “control” him at all. Chen Shou commented in the biography of the first lord that “the first lord built the wind of the great ancestor and the weapon of the hero.” Gaozu was Liu bangye. In order to consolidate the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Bang had cut off other kings with different surnames, such as Han Xin, Pengyue and yingbu. Since Liu Bei has the “high ancestor style”, he may follow his ancestor’s “story”. After Guan Yu lost Jingzhou and the whole army was destroyed, he simply “pretended to be a Wu Man and killed Guan Yu.”. Therefore, we must not idealize the relationship between monarchs and ministers in ancient times, thinking that there is really a peach garden to end justice and vow to live and die together.

Because the records in Shu Shu are too brief, the author can not find exact historical data to prove the above speculation, but he can still find clues from the relevant records in Shu Shu Shu. For example, after the death of Kan Tong, “the first lord deplores, and words make tears flow.”. When FA Zheng died, “the first lord shed tears for him for days.”. When Zhang Fei was stabbed to death, Liu Bei said in surprise, “Gee, Fei is dead.” As a matter of fact, Guan Yu died for his country and his head was separated. Liu Bei should have been even more sad. However, looking through the annals of the Three Kingdoms and Pei’s notes, there was no record of Liu Bei’s tears. Was it Chen Shou’s omission? It’s impossible. How can Chen Shou, who is known as a good historian, not record such a great event. In addition, after Guan Yu’s death, Liu Bei did not give his posthumous title. Only when Liu Chan, the later leader, pursued his posthumous title of Yu and called him Marquis Miao Zhuang. But did Liu Bei not give posthumous titles to all his officials? Neither was it. After the death of FA Zheng, Liu Bei “bestowed the name of Yi Hou”. Why did Liu Bei want to be honest but not Guanyu? Due to the lack of historical data, I am afraid the mystery will never be declassified.

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