Unveiling Liu Bang’s route of “surreptitiously handling Chencang”

Spread the love



In the spring and February of the first year of emperor Gaozu (206 BC), Xiangyu established himself as the overlord of the Western Chu state, and granted Liu Bang the title of king of the Han state. “The 41 counties of wangba, Shu and Hanzhong are all Nanzheng.”. In April of the summer, 30000 Yu envoys died and tens of thousands of followers took Ziwu road from the south of Chang’an District to Hanzhong. In August, after listening to Han xince, Liu Bang led his troops out of the old path to attack Yong and set down the Sanqin.

Liu Bang once “built plank roads openly” when he “concealed his position”. The plank road built in the Ming Dynasty is a commendation ramp into the commendation valley. In the valley of praise, the mountains are steep and the water is turbulent. It is not easy to build a plank road here! This is also the same as the Ziwu road of “going to burn out” in the middle of the Han Dynasty, “in case the princes steal troops and attack, it also shows that Xiangyu has no intention of moving east”. It is intended to paralyze Xiangyu and make Xiangyu worry about the king of the Han Dynasty. In fact, this road was not built at that time. For the records of building the praising chute, see the records in the annals of the canal in the Han Dynasty, During Yuan Shuo period (128-123 BC), “someone wrote to the imperial historian Zhang Tang, who wanted to pass the praising chute and the water channel. Tang said,” when you arrive in Sichuan, you will follow the old path. The old path has many bans and goes back far. Today, you will wear the praising chute and few bans, which is nearly 400 Li. However, the praising water can pass through Mianyang and the slanting water can pass through the Wei River, which can be used for boat and water channel… “It was thought so. Ang, the son of Tang, was guarded by Hanzhong and sent tens of thousands of people to make the praising chute for 500 Li. The road is close, and the water is full of rocks, so you can’t pass the water channel.”. In addition, according to the “Ode to the stone gate”, as for Yongping, there were four years (AD 61) when the imperial edict opened and cut through the stone gate It took six years (AD 63) for the “grand opening” of the commendation ramp.

As for the path taken by Liu Bang when he “concealed Chencang”, the historical records records records that: “in August, the king of Han Dynasty used Han Xin’s plan to return from the old path and attack the king of Yong, Zhang Han.” The records in the book of Han are the same as those in the historical records. It is also recorded in the biography of Cao can: “the king of Han granted Shen Jiancheng marquis. From the time he reached Hanzhong, he moved to general. From the time he returned to Sanqin, he conquered and distinguished. The old way is Yong.” According to Zizhi Tongjian, “the king of Han led his troops out of the old way, attacked Yong, and Yong was defeated… The king of Han decided to land Yong to the east of Xianyang.” Therefore, the article “old way” in Ci Hai says: “Liu Bang came out of the old way from the middle of Han Dynasty and returned to the three Qin Dynasties.” Therefore, it is a final conclusion that the king of Han Dynasty took the old path when he secretly spent his time in Chencang. So, where is the old way?

“Ci Hai” (edited by Xia Zhengnong, revised edition of Shanghai dictionaries in 1989, and printed for the fourth time in 1991) states that “the old road is also called Chencang road. It starts from Chencang (now baojidong) and runs southwest to Sanguan. Along the old water Valley Road, it turns southeast to Fengxian County, enters Baogu Valley, and goes out to Hanzhong. In the historical records of rivers and canals,” the old road leads back to Sichuan from the old road. The old road has many bans, and goes back far. ” In the annotation of the first year of emperor Gaodi in the complete annotation of Zizhi Tongjian (edited by Xiaofeng, Yanbian people, april1994), the explanation of the old way is: “in the southwest of Baoji, in the southeast of dashangguan.” In the annals of Mianxian County, the ancient Jiaotong Road (earthquake edition in November, 1989), it is also written that “Chencang road is a branch of Baoxie ancient road. In the first year of the Han Dynasty, soldiers went out of SHANGUAN, attacked Sanqin, and finally became an imperial industry. Chencang road entered from Hanzhong, followed Jinniu Road to Huangsha, turned north, passed Baizhang slope… Lianyun Temple connected with Baoxie Valley Road.” In addition, the article “Chencang road” in the Great Dictionary of ancient and modern Chinese place names (daijunliang and other editors, Shanghai dictionary, July2005 Edition) states: “it is also the old road, starting from Chencang in the north, leaving Sanguan in the southwest, along the river valley of the old road to Fengxian County, turning southeast into Baogu and reaching Hanzhong.” “Old road” means “old road, road name, also known as Chencang road. It is the main passage between the north and south of Qinling Mountains.” “North plank road” says: “from now on, the Northeast Caoliang post in Fengxian County, Shaanxi Province enters the stack, from the southwest to Fengxian County, the East passes through Liuba County, and from the south to Baocheng, Hanzhong City, the old ZhiBei Jitou pass exits the stack. The north section is the ancient road, and the south is the ancient Baoxie road.” “Lianyun plank road” means “North plank road”.

However, I think the above statements are wrong. In fact, whether the old road is a county, a river or a road, up to now, Feng county has turned to the southwest along the old road and Jialing Road, and then turned to the southeast along Ju waterway to reach Hanzhong, or turned to the south from the southeast of Lueyang to Chenping road to Da’an post to take Jinniu Road to Shu.

The old road, the name of an ancient county, was established in Qin Dynasty and abolished in the sixth year of Yongjia reign of Jin Dynasty (312 years). It governs Fengzhou and Fengxian County and Liangdang. It has no jurisdiction over Baogu, so it does not enter Baogu; The old road is the name of water. It does not flow to the Baogu valley. Instead, it turns from the southwest to the slightly sunny today and joins the Western Han River into Sichuan. According to the notes to the water classics: rippling water, “the water flows out of the dashanling in Chencang county and flows into the old Daochuan in the southwest, which is called the old daoshui.”

The old road, also known as Chencang road and Jialing Road, was opened up as early as the Western Zhou Dynasty. The Western Zhou Dynasty enfeoffed the San state in the south of the Weihe River in Baoji. In the early Zhou Dynasty, “Zhou Dao” is recorded in the inscription of the bronze ware “San Shi pan”. According to Wang Guowei’s research, this “Zhou Dao” is the old Dao. From the Shang and Zhou Dynasties to the Tang and Song Dynasties, between Qin and Shu, this route has been passed down to the South or North. It is a post route for senior officials, such as “spreading the urgent news of the military and the country, and reaching officials to take charge of documents”. The whole line of the old road is: to Fengxian County, to the southwest, along the river valley of the old road, to Hanzhong through Liangdang, Huixian and Lueyang, or to da’anyi, to Jinniu Road and Sichuan through Chenping road in Lueyang. This road has been widely used since the Zhou and Qin Dynasties. It was rebuilt in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Next to the bridge of the Jiage bridge, where the old road must pass, there is a Han stele of “Jiage song”, one of the famous three odes of the Han Dynasty. The “three-dimensional remote sensing satellite map of Qinling Mountains” published in the Shaanxi album (Part 2) of China National Geographic magazine in June, 2005 indicates that Chencang road starts from Chencang road in Baoji and enters Sichuan through Lueyang in Hanzhong. It also states that “Chencang road is the old road. It roughly runs along the Jialing River Valley, starts from Chencang in the north and passes through Feng County, Hui County in Gansu Province and Lueyang in Shaanxi Province in the south. Along the way, it is flat, densely populated and has been used for a long time.” At the beginning of liberation, Baoji Chengdu Railway was built along the old road and Jialing Road. Among the ancient roads from Shaanxi to Sichuan, this road should take the lead in terms of “early start, long duration, large scale and wide spread of history and culture”.

The road “from Fengxian County to Baogu and out to Hanzhong” was first built in the 4th year of Zhengshi of the Northern Wei Dynasty (507). According to the “Shimen inscription” of the Northern Wei Dynasty, which was moved in 1970 and is now stored in the Museum of Hanzhong City, in the third year of Zhengshi (506), Yang Zhizou, the governor of Liang and Qin prefectures, asked to create a new way back (now the southeast of Feng County). In October of the fourth year, “the left school ordered Jia Sande to lead 10000 disciples and 100 generals to accomplish the task.”. “On October 10, the fourth year of Yongping’s reign, the first month of the second year of Yongping’s reign (509), the work was completed. The pavilion was four feet wide, and the road was six feet wide. All of them were filled with rivers and valleys. It was dangerous and dangerous. It was more than 300 Li from the return to the baogukou.” After that, the north section of Baoxie road was changed to the return lane. From the middle of Han Dynasty to the north of Baogu Valley, this road has left jiangwozi in Liuba County, left Baoxie ramp, turned northwest to chaiguanling, Liufeng pass, Fengxian County, Yueda pass and Baoji. Later, it was called Lianyun plank road, and the southern section was still called Baoxie ramp. In the 1930s, Sichuan Shaanxi highway was built along this road, which is now national highway 316.

The turnaround road was built in the second year of Yongping of the Northern Wei Dynasty (509), 715 years later than Liu Bang’s “hiding in Chencang”. When Liu Bang was “returning to the three Qin Dynasties”, he still had to conquer the old road, and take the old road instead of Ju waterway and Jialing Road? Moreover, the “historical records · Hequ book” refers to the old road of “all”, which is by no means the back lane or Lianyun plank road. The historical records was written in the second year of Zhenghe of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (91 BC), 600 years earlier than the first turn back lane. Can Sima Qian foresee that the turn back lane will be opened in Yangzhi 600 years later?

Due to the misleading of Ci Hai, later generations believed that Liu Bang had gone back to the road. Even during the Three Kingdoms period, Zhugeliang came out of Qishan mountain and also believed that he had gone this way. If Liu bangruo goes back to the driveway, how can he attack and identify Longyou; And how did Zhugeliang build Wuxing (now Lueyang) city? What about “if the Ge family survives, it is lucky to rest the labor of the wooden cattle” in the “Shimen inscription” of the Han Dynasty? Going back to the lane is contrary to the march route. If you go back in the lane, it has nothing to do with the purpose and even misses the military plane. How can I get there without a way?

As for Liu Bang’s march route of “covertly subduing Chencang”, the Shaanxi Tongzhi GuanLiang in the 13th year of Yongzheng said: “the old way is to follow the two dangs, and the emperor Gaodi of the Han Dynasty attacked Chencang According to the annals of Hanzhong region – major wars of previous dynasties (edited by guopeng, August 2005, Sanqin Edition): “in August, the king of Han used Han Xin’s plan to send troops from Hanzhong to Longyou. Cao Shen took down the identification (now the west of Chengxian county), the old road, went out of the pass, and went to Chencang; fan Kuai broke through the city of Xixian county (today’s southwest of the water), went out of Yongnan along the long road (now the south of Fengxiang), broke through Zhang Han, the king of Yong, and rode a light car to conquer Sanqin.” Volume 34 of the annals contains the general situation of the county and the city: “Lueyang had an old road in the pre-Qin period, which was the main road connecting Guanzhong to Sichuan and Shu. In the first year of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bang went north from Hanzhong through the county to Sanguan and set the three Qin dynasties.”

To sum up, the way for Liu Bang in Han Dynasty to “hide behind Chencang” is Jialing Road, Longyou Road, and the old road, that is, starting from Hanzhong, passing through the northwest of Mianxian County, entering the mountain from Jukou, passing through Lueyang, Cheng County, Wudu, Hui County, Liangdang, Feng County, etc., to the east of Baoji.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *