What are Liu Bei’s main achievements in his life

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Liu Bei established the Shuhan regime in Sichuan. At that time, the traffic in Sichuan was relatively backward, with most mountain roads. Liu Bei and Prime Minister Zhuge Liang made important contributions to the development of the post industry in Sichuan.

After the founding of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bei set up a military base for the Northern Expedition in Hanzhong in order to deal with Cao Wei in the north. In order to get through the main road of military defeat, four main roads have been opened between Hanzhong and Guanzhong, namely the famous Meridian Road, Tangluo Road, Baoxie Road and Taurus Road. Shu Han also set up an important military pass in Hanzhong, Baishui Pass. The hills around Baishuiguan are covered with beacon towers. A series of pavilions and buildings have been set up 400 miles from Baishuiguan to Chengdu, the national capital, to ensure the normal operation of the post office. In Jingzhou area, which borders the Eastern Wu Dynasty, General Guan Yu also set up a military communication “Duhou” along the river, with the beacon tower leading from the rear to the Xiangfan front.

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There is communication between Shu Han and Wei in the north and Wu in the east. According to historical records, after Xu Jing, a famous scholar, served as the Grand Fu in the Shu Han Dynasty, he and his former friends in the north, the ministers of the State of Wei, Hua Xin, Wang Lang, and so on, kept communicating with each other in letters, saying, “It is good to declare old”. A letter written by Wang Lang to Xu Jing from Wei Lue, cited in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, said that “there was a book in the previous summer but it was not reached, and now there is a book again, and I will not ask you before”. Other ministers of the State of Wei and some ministers of Shu and Han also often communicated with each other. The official of the State of Wei sent a letter to Zhuge Liang to inquire about Liu Ba, the minister of Shu Han. There are more friendly letters between Shu Han and the State of Wu. Chen Zhen once talked about this with the general of the State of Wu at the time of his mission to the State of Wu. Zhuge Liang and his brother Zhuge Jin and General Lu Xun often have correspondence.

The characteristic of post stations in Shu Han is that there is almost no vehicle transmission, and most of the posts are delivered by post horses. People who are engaged in this work are called “post men”. This is probably because Shu is located in the southwest, most of which are remote mountainous areas, and the roads are irregular.

Formulate Shuke

Shuke is the law of the Shu Han Dynasty. When Liu Bei entered Sichuan at the beginning of his career, everything was waiting to be done. He was ordered to take charge of the old text and draft the system for those familiar with the system and the old law, such as Xu Ci, Hu Qian, Meng Guang and Lai Min. After the pacification of Yizhou, he began to formulate the code. According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, five people participated in the formulation of Shuke, namely Zhuge Liang, Fazheng, Yiji, Liu Ba and Li Yan. The specific content of Shuke has been lost, but according to the biography of Zhuge Liang, although the law enforcement in Shuhan is severe, it is fair and fair, and the people have no complaints.

Liu Bei criticized the amnesty system of Liu Biao and Liu Zhang, and Zhuge Liang also pointed out the reasons for Liu Zhang’s governance of Yizhou. He believed that the so-called virtuous government implemented by Liu Zhang was to attract people with small favours and small favours, to honor the subjects with a good high position, to violate the law, and to accumulate heavy burdens, and to establish the authority of the law, the implementation of the law would be grateful, and the people would be governed by the title, and the increase of the title would know that the glory, honor and grace would be used together, and the upper and lower levels would have a certain degree of progress and retreat, which is the key to governing the country. [46] It not only contains the concept of Legalism that the rule of law is superior to the rule of virtue, but also reflects the foundation of Legalism theory – the theory of evil nature.

Liu Bei and Zhuge Liang run the country with the combination of law and propriety, and the combination of power and virtue. He emphasized “disciplining the law” and “persuading the good to dethrone the evil”, that is, taking the law as the body, and emphasizing the principle of fairness and objectivity; Take virtue as the purpose and focus on education. With Shang Yang’s method, but not superstitious about his authoritarianism, he took his rational method, combined with Confucian enlightenment, and integrated the practice method and enlightenment. After such “rule of law reform” movement, the work efficiency of the Shuhan regime has been significantly improved, and the administration of officials has gradually become clear. In the later period of the Shu Han Dynasty, the ruler Fei Yi carried out amnesty for many times. Meng Guang, the chief minister of agriculture, quoted the stories of Zhuge Liang and Liu Bei to strongly reprimand Fei Yi.

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