Original: housha source wechat official account: housha has been authorized to reprint
June 9 is the 350th anniversary of the birth of Peter the great, and various commemorative activities have been held throughout Russia.
On the 9th, Putin participated in the commemorative activities by holding exchanges with young entrepreneurs. He said: “we have just visited an exhibition commemorating the 350th anniversary of the birth of Peter the great… Peter the great fought the Great Northern War for 21 years. People have the impression that he fought with Sweden and occupied some things. In fact, he did not occupy anything. He is recovering.”
When talking about the military action against Ukraine, he said that this is to follow the call of the spirit of Peter the great.
So, what kind of Czar was Peter the great, who was highly praised by Putin?
Peter I, I introduced him in Russian history before. However, some friends left messages saying that they still did not understand Russian history and wrote it too complicated.
In fact, even writing a brief history of foreign history will make many people confused, because the world history when we read is a history of all countries.
When reading foreign history after leaving school, there is another problem, that is, the names of people and places are really difficult to remember, and they are always repeated. There are a lot of Elisabeth, a lot of Anna, a lot of Mary, and Vassily who jumps out from time to time.
Pleoblarensky, who remembers such place names? But this place name is closely related to the fate of Peter I. So, please write it down first
Let’s start with Peter I’s father Alexei. The previous skipping.
Alexei had two wives. Queen Maria gave birth to three sons, Theodore III and Ivan V (one of them died), and Natalia gave birth to Peter I.
On January 29, 1676, after the death of 47 year old Alexei, he was succeeded by 16-year-old Prince fiordo.
The Russian Turkish War (1676-1681) broke out as soon as fyordo III became king. After the five-year war, both sides agreed to take the Dnieper River as the boundary, and the eastern part of Ukraine belonged to Russia.
Fyodor III had been a czar for only six years. He died of illness at the age of 21 and had no children.
In this way, only one czar can be selected between his two younger brothers (Ivan, 16, and Peter, 10). There was no need to choose, because Ivan was not only born to the queen, but also older than Peter, so it was natural to succeed to the throne.
But Ivan is almost blind and mentally retarded. How can he be a czar if he can’t take care of himself?
Peter was naughty and smart since childhood, so many human masters succeeded Peter.
Moscow’s powerful men were divided into two groups. One group, led by the miloslavsky family of the Queen’s family, supported Ivan; The other group, led by the nareshkin family of Peter’s mother’s family, supported Peter.
The two sides were in a stalemate. Finally, the great orthodox patriarch ioakim came forward to mediate. He thought Peter was more suitable and held a coronation ceremony for Peter. His mother nareshina was the Regent.
In this way, Peter’s two uncles came to power.
In order to seize power, Ivan still wants to put Ivan on the throne. Princess Sophia, Ivan’s sister, has become the leader of this force.
Princess Sophia is a cruel person. As long as her mentally retarded brother can rise to the top, she will have a chance to become the queen behind the scenes.
Next, Sophia colluded with the leader of the guard army (Imperial Guard) to plan a coup. However, the commander of the guard army, Grand Duke hewansky, was very dissatisfied with the monopoly of power by the nareshkin family, and the two sides hit it off.
Before the coup, Sophia made a rumor that the prince Ivan had been strangled by the Regent nareshjina, inciting the nobles to revolt.
In the early morning of May 15, 1682, the guards, led by the governor Duke hewansky, entered the Kremlin.
They killed all flesh and blood in the palace. Khwansky killed his two uncles in the presence of little Czar Peter, saying that it was to eliminate the rebels.
This left a lifelong psychological shadow on the 10-year-old Peter, who later built St. Petersburg as the capital, which had something to do with this.
Fortunately, nareshgina is a person who can compromise. She has been tolerant of the queen everywhere before. In the face of the coup, she did not scold the forbidden army, but led Peter and the retarded Ivan to the platform at the entrance of the Kremlin church.
When the imperial guards saw Ivan alive, the rumor was broken. If anyone at this time ordered to rush up to kill, it would be to harm the prince, or even Shi Jun.
Although Peter’s life was saved, the soldiers of the imperial guards continued to massacre members of the nareshkin family and their supporting nobles in the city.
The rebellion lasted until May 26. The governor khwansky led the imperial guards to the Kremlin and asked Ivan to make Ivan the first Czar, Peter the second czar and respect isofia the Regent.
Nareshina, who survived the disaster, agreed to let Sophia be the Regent.
In June, the chief pastor presided over the coronation ceremony of two emperors standing side by side in the church.
Sophia took control of the court as regent. Her two younger brothers, one mentally retarded and the other 10 years old, were at her mercy. But 10-year-old Peter sometimes interrupts, which makes Sophia a little uncomfortable.
Before long, she simply drove Peter I’s mother and son out of the Kremlin and moved to the palace outside Moscow, which was called pleobransky village.
In other words, Peter grew up here.
After Peter left, Sophia opened a small window on the back of Ivan V’s throne. She sat behind the throne whether it was to discuss imperial politics or military affairs. When she said something, Ivan repeated it.
But Sophia was afraid of one person, namely hewansky, the imperial guard who helped her coup, because if hewansky colluded with others, his imperial guard could overthrow her.
So she set up a poison trap. When a religious activity was held in trotsk monastery with the participation of the Czar, she deployed guards in the monastery in advance, and khwansky had to accompany the czar to attend the event.
As soon as khwansky and his son entered the monastery hall, they were taken down, tied directly to the backyard wall and hacked to death with a scraper.
Princess Sophia painted by Repin, with her brother behind.
Then Sophia appointed her lover shaklovit to take charge of the imperial guards and another lover golizin to take charge of government affairs. She finally became the “czar behind the scenes” as she wished.
Peter was far away from the Kremlin. His mother told her aristocracy not to act rashly and never let Sophia doubt. Otherwise, the two women must be in different places.
Although Peter was young, he moved freely. All the children in pleobarenski village played with him. They lined up all day to play war games and established an “army”.
In 1686, when Peter was 14 years old, the “army” completed a march from pleobarenski village to another village. Peter was a drummer.
Peter also asked for military uniforms, muskets and swords from Moscow, 16 artillery from the artillery department, and enlisted active cavalry and horse trainers from the cavalry Department into the “youth army”.
There is a foreign settlement near pleobarenski village, which is called “foreign city”. The residents include British, Dutch, Prussian and Australian
Most of these people are scholars and experts. Peter’s mother asked them to teach him history, geography, carpentry, iron making, clocks, printing and weapon making, and then mathematics, geometry and military science. They also invited relevant teachers from the palace. Some people followed Peter all his life.
Peter also made a German girlfriend Anna Mons here. She was beautiful and lively, but Peter never married her. Later, she kept cheating with many men when Peter was out. Later, she got together with the ambassador of the Duchy of Saxony to Russia, which aroused public anger and was imprisoned by Peter.
The Tsar could marry three legal wives. Fearing that he would be spoiled by Anna Mons, nareshina arranged for his son to marry Evdokia, the daughter of his courtier lopsin, when he was 17 years old. On January 27, 1689, the Tsar held a grand marriage and was crowned Queen.
But Evdokia was a nun orthodox believer who did not move or hum in bed like an inflatable doll. Peter ran away in less than a month and went to find Anna Mons.
When Peter was approaching adulthood, he received the support of more and more originally neutral nobles and courtiers. From a rational point of view, Peter officially took power. Only Russia, surrounded by powerful enemies, could have hope. After all, the “czar behind the scenes” was not well-known and did not speak well.
Sophia’s worry about Peter was also growing, and the two sides finally broke out in conflict on July 8, 1689.
On the same day, the festival celebration of the statue of the virgin of Kazan was held. Sophia stood side by side with the two czars.
Peter asked her to stand behind the Czar on the spot. Sophia was shocked and angry. Instead, she took a step forward and stood in the forefront. The whole audience was silent.
Peter left Moscow in a rage, and Sophia decided to get rid of Peter as soon as possible after discussing with her lovers.
On August 7, sarcrovit, the governor of the forbidden army, mobilized the whole army to kill the village of pleobarenski and put Peter’s family to death.
But two soldiers loyal to Peter in the forbidden army immediately rode on fast horses to report to Peter, half a day faster than the soldiers of the forbidden army.
Peter I was shocked at the news and transferred his mother, Queen and “youth army” to trotsk Abbey overnight.
After the next morning, the nobles in Moscow who supported Peter I also brought their soldiers to the monastery to support Peter I.
Both Peter I and Ivan V (Sophia) issued an imperial edict in the name of the Czar, asking the army to assemble on their own side.
As a result, more people rushed to the monastery than the Kremlin. Peter I immediately ordered the army to surround the Kremlin.
Seeing that the general situation was over, Sophia had to abdicate and hand over the post of regent to Peter’s mother. She sent Sophia to the new virgin convent and sent heavy soldiers to guard her.
On October 7, Peter’s mother asked the soldiers to arrest shacrovit, the governor of the forbidden army, and execute him on the spot.
Ivan V still lives in the palace as the first Czar, and Peter I has no malice towards this retarded brother.
Ivan V died in 1696, Peter became the only Czar, and Sophia died in the monastery in 1704.
In 1697, Peter visited Europe. He dressed up as a carpenter and visited Britain, Holland and Germany. In the summer of 1698, he returned home.
In 1699, he hired more than 1000 military instructors, experts and engineers with high salaries from Europe to strengthen the Russian military, and formed an “anti Swedish alliance” with Denmark and the Polish Lithuanian Federation.
Peter I’s goal was to recapture the territory occupied by Sweden.
Sweden has won successive battles in the “first Northern War”, “30 years (religious) war” and “Second Northern War”. Its territory includes today’s Sweden, Finland, the Baltic States, a part of Russia (including the Petersburg region) and a part of Germany.
In 1700, Peter I ordered to attack Sweden, and the Great Northern War broke out.
At that time, tsarist Russia was not well prepared, but if it did not fight, the 18-year-old Swedish king Karl XII would also move south to seize the grain producing areas (Ukrainian land) in southern Russia.
In the first battle, more than 30000 Russian troops were defeated by more than 10000 Swedish troops, and the Russian fortress Narva was lost.
However, the Swedes did not seize the opportunity to defeat Russia at one fell swoop. In 1701, Carl XII turned to Europe to fight.
In 1703, Peter I designed and built a super large castle on a coastal swamp formerly controlled by the Swedes, which was later St. Petersburg. This year, Peter turned the Lithuanian Marta, the lover of his favorite minister, makikov, into his lover. She later converted to the Orthodox Church, changed her name to Ekaterina, and became Queen in 1712. After Peter died, she became Tsar Ekaterina I.
Five years later, the Russian army obviously slowed down, and Karl XII was determined to kill Peter I.
In 1708, 150000 Swedish troops attacked Russia, but they did not reach Moscow in winter. More than 50000 people died of cold and illness on the road.
In the spring of 1709, the Swedish army abandoned Moscow and went straight to Ukraine to seize the granary.
In June, the two sides fought in Poltava, Ukraine. The Russian army broke up 100000 Swedish troops. Karl XII led the remaining troops to flee into the territory of the Ottoman Empire and re integrate. Peter led his troops to the Ottoman Empire, but was defeated. Instead, he lost the port of Azov and other places.
The two sides stopped for four years. In 1714, Peter announced that St. Petersburg would become the new capital.
Carl XII turned around to fight in northern Europe. As a result, he was killed in Norway in 1716, and the advantage turned to Russia.
In 1721, the Great Northern War, which lasted for 21 years, ended with the victory of Russia, and Sweden spit out the land it had previously occupied.
Russia has gained access to the Baltic Sea and the surrounding Finland, Latvia and Estonia. The most important thing is the establishment of St. Petersburg.
In 1721, Peter I was officially proclaimed emperor and renamed Peter the great. Russia entered the imperial era from the kingdom. In 1725, Peter the great died.
After the Great Northern War, Sweden became a small and medium-sized country in Europe, and Russia became a power.
In the commemoration of Peter the great, Putin stressed that there are only two ways for a country: one is to become an independent sovereign state, and the other is to be reduced to a colony under American hegemony.
In addition, he said, “obviously, the recovery and consolidation of the land has also fallen on us.”
Don’t the United States and Europe, especially the “colonial” countries around Russia, understand?