When the country perishes, no matter how skilled a papersmith is, he cannot stop the leaking broken window!

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Author: Wen Boling Source: The Fireworks World of Wen Boling (ID: wenboling2020)


It is said that Sima Yi replaced Cao Wei because of his long life. In fact, Sima Yi can achieve great achievements, and the descendants of his family can unify the Three Kingdoms and establish the Jin Dynasty, which is the result of the continuous efforts of several generations.

Sima Yi is just the representative of Sima family.

As early as the reign of Emperor An in the Eastern Han Dynasty, Sima Jun of the Sima family in Hanoi became a general in the west and was a senior official in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Sima Liang, the son of Sima Jun, became the governor of Yuzhang, Sima Jun, the son of Sima Liang, became the governor of Yingchuan, Sima Fang, the son of Sima Jun, became the governor of Beijing, and Sima Yi was the son of Sima Fang.

In addition to the Yuan clan in Runan and the Yang clan of Hongnong clan, which were inferior to the four generations of three princes, the Sima clan in Hanoi, which had two thousand stones for four generations, was definitely one of the top clans in the late End of the Han dynasty, and was much more profound than Cao Cao’s “superfluous eunuch and ugly” heritage.

This is the foundation of Sima Yi’s rise, and also the historical origin of Yingchuan clans’ promotion and support for Sima Yi.

After all, the Sima family in Hanoi had a deep friendship with the Xunzi family and the Chen family in Yingchuan. When they came to the generation of Sima Yi, Xunyu, and Chen Qun, they should form an interest alliance to support progress together.

With the support of this circle of contacts, Sima Yi made rapid progress and, depending on his own ability, went east and west until he became the assistant minister of the Cao Wei Dynasty.

At that time, there were also a large number of Sima members, such as Sima Shi of the Central Guard, Sima Zhao, the minister Sima Fu, Sima Wang, the prefect of Pingyang, and so on.

If the fame of Sima Yi’s achievements is the basis for him to launch the Gaopingling coup, then the numerous smart Sima members who are in charge of military and political power are an important guarantee for the Confucian classics family to support Sima Yi’s usurpation.

Because there are people who follow Sima Yi’s family, they don’t need to worry about the lack of backbone. After finishing this big battle with Sima Yi, they don’t need to worry about changing dynasties, and they can enjoy the fruits of victory in peace.

Many people think it’s worth buying and selling with one hammer.

After the success of the Gaopingling coup, the Sima family went through several bloody massacres, and it was only through three consecutive generations of relay that they truly captured the Jiangshan region of Cao Wei.

One time, Sima Yi cleaned up Cao Shuang, He Yan and other reformers and put down “Huainan rebellion”

He Yan was going to turn to Sima Yi to deal with Cao Shuang and other reformist members for him, so as to save his life. As a result, after everyone was arrested, Sima Yi said that “where there are eight ethnic groups”, He Yan could not count enough, so he said to Sima Yi, “What is Yan?” Could I also be there?

Sima Yi nodded slightly: “Yes”, all three ethnic groups.

It can be seen that Sima Yi is not prepared to compromise in terms of cleaning up political enemies.

But it is said that Sima Yi has gained the military and political power of the imperial court, and Wang Ling, the lieutenant in charge of the army and horses in Huainan, is unconvinced. Everyone is a high-ranking official of the Cao Wei Dynasty on an equal footing. Why should we kneel down and kowtow to the descendants of Sima Yi if Sima Yi can threaten the emperor to make princes?

So Wang Ling decided to fight against Sima Yi and set Cao Biao, the king of Chu, as the emperor.

In order to copy Sima Yi’s successful experience, Wang Ling also sent General Yang Hong to contact Yanzhou Governor Huang Hua. However, Yang Hong and Huang Hua did not answer Wang Ling and went straight to Sima Yi to inform him.

Sima Yi personally led the army to conquer Huainan and captured Wang Ling alive. All the three ethnic groups involved in this matter were all Yi. He also killed Cao Biao, the king of Chu, and set up an organization to strictly supervise the imperial family of Cao Wei to avoid similar things in the future.

The other time was when Sima Shi dealt with the remaining members of the reformists and pacified the “Huainan Second Rebellion”

In 251 AD, Sima Yi died, and his eldest son, Sima Shi, succeeded the general of the Fujun and recorded the history of calligraphy. Sima Fu became the first lieutenant, and his uncle and nephew jointly took charge of the Cao Wei regime.

Sima Shi did not have the reputation of great achievements. In fact, inheriting Sima Yi’s position cannot convince the public. So Sima Shi was very open-minded. His contributions were given to his subordinates, and his mistakes were all his own. He really achieved the goal of “winning heroes to please the people”

For example, when the conquest of the State of Wu failed, the court ministers advised Sima Shi to punish the army generals, but Sima Shi said, “I didn’t listen to Zhuge Dan’s correct suggestions, which led to the failure of the front line and had nothing to do with the generals.” Except for the removal of Sima Zhao, the supervisor of the army, no one was blamed.

In the final analysis, Sima Shi did so to reduce the killing and unite the strength that can be united.

But what Sima Shi wants to do is to change dynasties, and there will certainly be a large number of opposition forces.

The middle secretary ordered Li Tao, Li Feng’s son, to marry the princess of the Cao Wei Dynasty. Because of this relationship, Li Feng was unwilling to get close to Sima Shi. He was also ready to start an army with Xiahou Xuan to overthrow Sima Shi, and then set up Xiahou Xuan as the general to restore the country of the Cao Wei Dynasty.

Sima Shi has been trying to win over Li Feng for two years, but Li Feng still hasn’t changed his mind.

Sima Shi had no choice but to kill Li Feng, Li Tao, Xiahou Xuan and others by hand. Later, he abolished Cao Fang, the Wei Emperor, and made Cao Feng, a noble township official, emperor.

Wen Qin, the governor of Yangzhou, and Wu Qiujian, the general of Zhendong, had a good relationship with Cao Shuang, Xiahou Xuan and other reformers. I heard that they were all victims of the three ethnic groups of barbarians. I felt that this big case would involve me sooner or later, so I started a war against Sima Shi in Shouchun.

In the face of life and death, Sima Shi left Sima Zhao to guard Luoyang, and personally led the army to Huainan. After two months of war, Sima Shi was able to calm the rebellion of Wenqin and Wuqiujian.

At that time, Sima Shi had just finished the eye surgery, but he had not yet fully recovered. After being frightened in the Huainan battlefield, an eye burst out directly, leading to the death of Sima Shi after his victory and return to the division. Sima Zhao took over the post of the great general and recorded books.

From then on, Sima Zhao stood on the shoulders of the six generations of Sima family in Hanoi, taking the last baton to seize power.

In 257 AD, Sima Zhao ordered Jia Chong to comfort the General of the Fourth Expedition. When he arrived in Huainan, Jia Chong took the opportunity to ask Zhuge Dan, the great general of the East Expedition, about his views on the change of dynasties.

Zhuge Dan had a good relationship with Cao Shuang, Xiahou Xuan and others. Naturally, he did not approve of Sima’s political position, and the death of Xiahou Xuan, Wang Ling and Wu Qiujian in succession worried Zhuge Dan.

So Zhuge Dan said to Jia Chong, “If the world receives Wei En, how can it be defeated by the state?”

After Jia Chong returned to Luoyang, he reported his work situation to Sima Zhao. Sima Zhao realized that Zhuge Dan could not be trusted, so he appointed Zhuge Dan as Sikong and indirectly seized his military power.

Zhuge Dan was afraid of being executed by Sima Zhao after arriving in Luoyang, so he decided to follow Wang Ling’s example and fight against Sima Zhao without Qiu Jian. Sima Zhao personally commanded 260000 soldiers, and fought for half a year to pacify Zhuge Dan’s “Three Rebellions in Huainan”

It can be said that the Huainan Rebellion was a continuation of the Gaopingling coup, and the Sima family’s removal of dissent was a follow-up work to eliminate the reformists such as Cao Shuang, not a mindless indiscriminate killing.

In 258 AD, Sima Zhao was granted the title of Prime Minister, Duke of Jin, Jia Jiuxi, and Shi Yi Ba Jun by Emperor Wei Cao Xi for his contributions in pacifying Huainan.

In 260 AD, Emperor Wei Cao Xi was unwilling to lose power and personally led the security forces to rush out of the palace gate to fight Sima Zhao to the death. However, he was stopped by the middle escort army Jia Chong on the street. After a series of battles, Jia Chong incited the Crown Prince to sacrifice Cheng Ji and assassinated Emperor Wei Cao Xi in the street.

In 263 AD, Sima Zhao sent Deng Ai and Zhong Hui to attack and conquer Shu Han. With the credit of annihilating Shu Han, Sima Zhao appointed the Duke of Jin as the King of Jin and ate twenty prefectures, earning the position of Cao Cao at that time.

From then on, only Wei and Wu remained in the Three Kingdoms. However, with the loss of support from Shu Han, the population and economy of Wu could not be compared to Wei, and its downfall was only a matter of time.

And Zhang Ti, a native of Wu, saw this:

“Sima Yi’s father and son have made great contributions. In addition to being troublesome and harsh, they have deployed their peace and benefits. They have been helping their masters to save their sufferings, and the people have returned to them for a long time. The three rebellions in Huainan have not worried about their hearts. Cao Feng’s death has not moved around. He has appointed the best people to do their best. His roots are solid, and his tricks have been established.”

At this point, with the efforts of seven generations, the Sima family has gained control of the country without any further suspense.



Since Jiangshan was inherited by the Sima family from generation to generation, and all members of the Sima family made great efforts throughout the entire process, it is natural to reward them based on their achievements after the establishment of the new dynasty.

Moreover, one of the important reasons why the Sima family was able to secure the territory of Cao Wei was that Cao Wei supervised the royal family, resulting in the kings of the royal family having no military and political power, let alone direct military power, and unable to effectively defend the territory of Cao Wei. When powerful officials appeared in the court, they could only serve as pigs and sheep waiting to be slaughtered.

In response to the lesson of the downfall of Cao Wei, after the establishment of the new dynasty, the Sima family also wanted to enfeoff the imperial family and defend the hard-earned territory of the Sima family.

Against this backdrop, the power of Sima’s enfeoffment of the imperial family can be described as unprecedented.

In August 265 AD, King Sima Zhao of the Jin Dynasty passed away, and Prince Emperor Wu of Jin succeeded the king and prime minister of the Jin Dynasty. In December of the same year, Emperor Cao Huanchan of the Wei Dynasty was located in Emperor Wu of Jin, and the Jin Dynasty was officially established.

As soon as he ascended the throne, Emperor Wu of Jin posthumously named Sima Yi Emperor Xuan, Sima Shi Emperor Jing, Sima Zhao Emperor Wen, and Sima Fu of his uncle’s generation as King Anping, Sima Liang of his uncle’s generation as King Pyeongwon of Goguryeo, Sima Liang as King Fufeng, Sima Zhou as King of Dongguan, Sima Jun as King Ruyin, Sima Tong as King Liang, Sima Lun as King Langya, his younger brother Sima You as King Qi, Sima Jian as King Le’an, and Sima The horse engine is the King of Yan, Make Cousin Sima Wang the King of Yiyang

The lockdown of this circle means that there were 27 kings holding real power in the early days of the Jin Dynasty.

According to the enfeoffment system of the Jin Dynasty, the kings of the Sima family established counties as their states——

Those with a household registration of over 20000 are major countries that can set up three armies, upper, middle, and lower, with a military strength of 5000 people. A country with a household registration of 10000 is a sub country, which can set up two armies with a force of 3000. A small country with a household registration of 5000 has a military force of 500 people.

Just looking at these terms, don’t you think it’s nothing? Hongwu Emperor’s enfeoffment sons did the same thing. Didn’t there be any big event in the Ming Dynasty?

But the problem is, after the Jin Dynasty enfeoffed the kings, there was a special clause – “If the king does not govern the country, officials in the capital can choose their own officials as the country’s central officials

If all the kings of the Sima family were to go to the fiefdom, it would indeed correct the problem of Cao Wei not enfeoffed the imperial family. However, the disadvantage is that the fiefdom of the kings is too far away from Luoyang, and once a coup occurs in Luoyang, the kings of the imperial family will not have time to rescue them.

If the kings of the Sima family did not receive fiefdoms and only served as officials in the court, they would repeat the mistakes of Cao Shuang. Once the political struggle failed, they would be swept to the end by their political enemies.

Emperor Wu of Jin made a compromise choice, and it became what it is now. Sima’s kings set up a feudal state, and I stayed in Luoyang to become an official, and chose Changshi and other subordinate officials from the feudal state.

From the perspective of God, Emperor Wu of Jin’s compromise plan is the culprit of the “Eight Kings Rebellion” in the future.

Because the kings of the Sima family had feudal status and military strength, they became deeply rooted local forces in the Jin Dynasty, just like the Confucian Confucian Confucian family. And the power to choose a long history from the enfeoffment was closely linked to the feudal lords of the Sima family who remained in Luoyang as officials.

In this way, the kings of the Sima family, who held high positions and were supported by local forces, essentially established new peaks within the court.

In 277 AD, in order to defend the Jin Dynasty, Emperor Wu of Jin decided to empower all the kings again – “All the kings are governors, and each of them moves to their own country to make them close”, and renamed the vassals of all the kings, so that the vassals of all the kings and the places guarded by the leaders can be combined into one.

Therefore, Sima Liang was renamed King of Runan, the governor of Yuzhou, the military, Sima Lun was renamed King of Zhao, guarding Yecheng, Sima Fu was renamed King of Taiyuan, overseeing the military of Bingzhou, Sima Zhou was renamed King of Langya, guarding Xuzhou, Sima Jun was renamed King of Fufeng, guarding Guanzhong

When the kings of the Sima family had the power to control local armies and horses, and were able to select talents from the feudal states, they had the same enormous power as the princes of the early Han Dynasty.

But after all, they were officials of the court and did not have the status of feudal princes in the early Han Dynasty. Therefore, when the unified country had already deeply rooted in people’s hearts, the only way for the Sima family kings to achieve maximum benefits was——

Kill in Luoyang, seize the highest power of the court, and then add a yellow robe to oneself.

This is the biggest hidden danger of the Jin Dynasty, and it is also the price for the Sima family to gain the world.

Another cost of the Sima family’s success in the world was to rely on the support of Confucian Confucian scholars and meritorious officials to change dynasties, which inevitably led to excessive tolerance for Confucian scholars and meritorious officials.

The most typical representative in this regard is Jia Chong.

Jia Chong was the eldest son of Jia Kui, an important official of the Cao Wei Dynasty. He followed Sima Shi to quell the rebellion of Wen Qin and Wu Qiujian. After Sima Shi became seriously ill, he immediately rushed back to the north and left Jia Chong as the overseer. After Sima Zhao succeeded to the throne, Jia Chong became Sima Zhao’s confidant again and went to Huainan Stab to find out Zhuge Dan’s irreverence.

It can be seen that Jia Chong is absolutely trusted by Sima Shi and Sima Zhao.

In 260 AD, when Cao Feng, the Emperor of the Wei Dynasty, went out of the palace to crusade against Sima Zhou, he actually met Cao Feng. He didn’t dare to resist, so he turned and ran away. But Jia Chong did not run away. Instead, he risked the great injustice of the world to fight against Cao Xian and said to Cheng Ji, “Sima Gongmu raised you for today. There is nothing to ask about today’s affairs

This sentence was said to Cheng Ji, but in fact, it was also said to himself.

After Cheng Ji stabbed Cao Xian to death, Chen Tai, the Left Servant of the Minister of Commerce, requested the beheading of Jia Chong to thank the world. Sima Zhao said, “Qing is more concerned about second best.” Think of another way, Jia Chong cannot be killed.

In the end, Cheng Ji was defeated by the Yi ethnic group, which can be considered as an explanation to the world.

This matter has become a political stain that Jia Chong has never been able to clean up throughout his life.

In 272 AD, Jia Chong had an argument with Henan Yin Yuchun. Jia Chong said that it was unfilial for Yu Chun not to return home to support his parents. As a result, Yu Chun directly sent out his soul torture and asked, “Where is the noble villager?” Where is Cao Xian? Dare you say it?

Jia Chong is ashamed and ashamed.

In 280 AD, when the Jin Dynasty pacified the state of Wu, Jia Chong asked Sun Hao, “I heard that you were chiseling people’s ears and eyes and peeling people’s faces in the south. What is the reason behind this?” Sun Hao’s answer was also very direct: “If someone kills their ruler or betrays someone who is disloyal, this punishment will be added to their ears.” This is also about Jia Chong’s killing of Cao Xian.

Jia Chong remained silent again.

These two events show that Jia Chong’s reputation has been thoroughly tainted, and other dynasties would have gone back to his hometown. But in the Jin Dynasty, Jia Chong not only lived well, but was also named Duke of Lu.

The reason is very simple. Compared to other dynasties, the Jin Dynasty had few loyal and loyal officials, and there were too many Confucian Confucian scholars who rode on the wall. No one of the Sima family could offend them, let alone restrain them with strict punishment and laws.

So people like Jia Chong were full of wealth, Shi Chong and Wang Kai showed off their wealth crazily, and Li Xi, the captain of Sili, impeached Shangshu Shantao, Zhongshan King Sima Mu and others to occupy the official land. Emperor Wu of Jin just finished his oral education.

Throughout the Jin Dynasty, there was a culture of tolerance and indulgence, which did not seem like it was just the beginning of the country.

The cost of these two Sima clans winning the world means that the historical burden of the Jin Dynasty was too heavy and had inherent chronic illnesses.



The inherent chronic illness of the Jin Dynasty determined that it could not carry out sweeping reforms and corrupt policies. What was needed was not a talented and strategic emperor, but a versatile but ineffective paperhanger.

From Sima Yi, Sima Shi, Sima Zhao to Emperor Wu of Jin, they were all paperpaperers in the troubled times at the end of the Han Dynasty.

In particular, Emperor Wu of Jin, Emperor Wu of the Jin Dynasty, was a real master of paper-cut.

Once, Emperor Wu of Jin asked Liu Yi, a lieutenant of the Sili School, “Which emperor of the Han Dynasty can I compare with

Zhuge Liang said that the demise of the Han Dynasty was caused by the two emperors Huanling. It can be seen that in that era, it was abusive to compare the emperor to “Huanling”, but it was worse to say that he was the king of the country that had perished.

But Emperor Wu of Jin didn’t care at all: “The world of Huanling didn’t hear about this. Today I have a direct minister, and I’m sure I can win.” No one dared to say that during the Huanling period of the Han Dynasty. Now you can say it directly. It can be seen that the Jin Dynasty is better than the Han Dynasty, and I am also better than the two emperors of Huanling.

It can be said that Emperor Wu of Jin had the measure of being a monarch, and that the Jin Dynasty had freedom of speech. But Emperor Wu of Jin’s words were actually just muddle through Liu Yi’s advice.

Regarding national defense and security, Minister Guo Qin has proposed:

All the counties in the northwest are military residences, including Jingzhao, Weijun, and Hongnong. Although they are now obedient, if there is a warning of wind and dust in a hundred years, Hu cavalry will arrive in Mengjin from Pingyang and Shangdang within three days. Beidi, Xihe, Taiyuan, Fengyi, Anding, and Shangjun are all Di Ting

Guo Qin meant that both Shanxi and Shaanxi were inhabited by the Hu people. Although they now obey the Jin Dynasty, they are likely to rebel in the future. By then, half of the Jin Dynasty’s territory will be gone, and Luoyang will also be exposed to the Hu people’s military presence.

Therefore, Guo Qin suggested: “It is advisable to balance the power of Wu and plan for the powerful generals, gradually moving to the border areas of the inner counties.” Taking advantage of the fact that the powerful generals are still in power and the Jin Dynasty is still strong, quickly migrate the Hu people back to their hometown outside the Great Wall, and stop wandering in Shanxi and Shaanxi.

Emperor Wu of Jin’s reaction was – “The emperor doesn’t listen.”

As the emperor of the Jin Dynasty, Emperor Wu of Jin could not be unaware of the situation at the border, and he planned the war to pacify Wu. He certainly understood what the Hu people in the border area meant, but he was unwilling to take practical action to solve the problems that might arise in the future.


The migration of the Hu people required a large amount of money, food, and materials, but the registered household registration of the Jin Dynasty was only 2459840 households, with a population of only ten million. The annual agricultural tax paid was very limited, and the daily operation of the court was very difficult, so it was not enough for the migration of the Hu people.

If expelled by force, there must be a great general with outstanding military achievements. At that time, will he wave his troops to Luoyang and follow Sima Yi to seize the power of the Jin Dynasty?

Because of this consideration, Emperor Wu of Jin made the decision to ignore it and papered the situation of the prosperous times.

In terms of selecting officials and appointing personnel, Liu Yi, the Minister of State, also provided opinions:

Today, we have established the Zhongzheng, established the Jiupin, placed the highest and lowest positions at will, held honor and disgrace in our hands, wielded the power of the ruler, and seized the power of the Heavenly Dynasty. There is no responsibility for public examination, no taboo for private criticism, and the theft of officials is a shame for the Holy Dynasty… Foolish officials think it is advisable to dismiss the Zhongzheng, eliminate the Jiupin, abandon the Wei family’s humble method, and establish a new generation of beauty

Liu Yi suggested that Emperor Wu of Jin abolish the Nine-rank system of “the top grade family without poverty and the bottom grade family without power”.

At the same time, Sima Liang and Sikong Weiguan, the kings of Runan, also put forward similar suggestions, reformulating the system of selecting officials and employing people, and absorbing talents to the maximum extent into the imperial court.

However, the Nine-rank system is a tool for protecting the interests of Confucian classics families. To abolish the Nine-rank system is to make enemies with all Confucian classics families, which Emperor Wu of Jin knows very well.

So after hearing the suggestions of Liu Yi, Sima Liang and Wei Guan, Emperor Wu of Jin “could not change his words even though he was good at his words”, he could not give up the Political base of the Jin Dynasty and change the legitimacy of the country.

Even when he chose the Crown Princess for Crown Prince Sima Cheng, he was also working as a paperhanger.

Originally, the princess Emperor Wu of Jin selected was Wei Guan’s daughter, but Jia Chong also wanted her to be the princess, so his wife Guo Huai colluded with Empress Yang to recommend Jia Nanfeng, Emperor Wu of Jin’s daughter.

Empress Yang’s goal was to unite with Jia Chong and consolidate his son Sima Zhong’s position as crown prince. Jia Chong’s goal was to marry the royal family and consolidate the prosperity and wealth of the Jia family, so the two of them hit it off at once.

Emperor Wu of Jin is very clear about the advantages and disadvantages of the women of the two families: “The Wei family is good and has many children, beautiful and white, the Jia family is beautiful and has few children, ugly and short black”. The daughter of Wei Guan is more in line with Emperor Wu of Jin’s aesthetic, and he prefers the daughter of Wei Guan to be the princess.

However, although Wei Guan is superior in ability and noble in conduct, his political power in the court is not as strong as Jia Chong’s, and his binding degree with Sima is not as strong as Jia Chong’s, so under the constant persuasion of Empress Yang and Jia Chong’s henchmen, Emperor Wu of Jin made a compromise and awarded Jia Nanfeng, 15, the crown princess of Sima Zhong.

To be realistic, Emperor Wu of Jin was not a brilliant emperor, nor could he reform the evil politics of the Jin Dynasty. But under the historical conditions of the Jin Dynasty, Emperor Wu of Jin was the most suitable emperor.

Because Emperor Wu of Jin was a good papermaker, what the Jin Dynasty needed was a papermaker.


In fact, with Emperor Wu of Jin’s shrewdness, he should be very clear that the prince Sima Zhong, whose IQ is worrying, cannot assume the responsibility of a paperpapermaker in the Jin Dynasty, so Emperor Wu of Jin wants to abolish the prince many times.

But after hesitating several times, Emperor Wu of Jin gave up the idea of abolishing the crown prince.

In addition to not wanting to cause political struggle in the court because of the abolition of the crown prince, the bigger reason is that Emperor Wu of Jin found that Sima Yu, the son of the crown prince Sima Zhong, was very intelligent and had the style of Emperor Xuan of Jin Sima Yi.

As early as when Sima Yu was five years old, there was a fire in Luoyang Palace. Emperor Wu of Jin went up to the gate tower to watch the fire. Sima Yu said, “The night is in a hurry. You should prepare very quickly. You should not let people see the owner.” It’s too dark, and the police must not be careful. Come down quickly, and don’t be assassinated.

Since then, Emperor Wu of Jin has admired Sima Yu very much, and is ready to make Sima Zhong, who is worried about his intelligence, a transitional figure. The important task of the pasting craftsman in the Jin Dynasty will be left to Sima Yu, the emperor’s grandson.

Emperor Wu of Jin’s vision is very beautiful, but what he did not think of was that there were deep-rooted structural contradictions in the Jin Dynasty, and a paperhanger was always needed to coordinate the forces of all parties. Once there was a Window period, all forces would certainly jump out to compete for power and gain.

So it was Jia Nanfeng, not Sima Yu, the grandson of the emperor, who eventually succeeded Emperor Wu of Jin as the paperpapermaker of the Jin Dynasty.

In 290 AD, Emperor Wu of Jin Emperor Wu of Jin died.

Originally, Emperor Wu of Jin was going to use Sima Liang, the king of Runan, his aides and Yang Jun, the general of chariots and cavalry, to assist in politics. But because Emperor Wu of Jin was seriously ill, Yang Jun used his position to draft an edict, appointed himself as the first lieutenant, the first prince, the first fu, the governor of all military affairs, the second lieutenants, and the recording of books, and then presented it to Emperor Wu of Jin.

Emperor Wu of Jin took a cursory look and thought it was difficult to reverse the situation behind him, so he died immediately.

At this time, Yang Jun became the person in charge of the military and political power of the Jin Dynasty. Together with his daughter, Empress Dowager Yang, he temporarily replaced Emperor Wu of Jin as a paperhanger.

Just after Emperor Wu of Jin was buried in Junyang Mausoleum, Yang Jun ordered:

Both domestic and foreign officials have been promoted to first class positions, those who are preparing for funerals have been promoted to second class positions, and those who are above two thousand stones have been granted titles of internal marquises. This is to promote officials at all levels of the Jin Dynasty, hoping that they can understand that following Yang Jun has meat to eat.

But the problem is that the task of the paperhanger is to maintain the balance of forces among all parties, not to act or make trouble, and everyone lives in peace.

Yang Jun’s approach means that promotion or demotion can be decided solely by Yang Jun without relying on merit or performance, which completely breaks the balance of various forces.

Why do you, Yang Jun, have neither the power to create nor the power to destroy the country?

The Jin Dynasty of the Sima family and the Jin Dynasty of the Confucian Confucian Confucian family cannot tolerate such arrogant people as Yang Jun.

So Jia Nanfeng, who was promoted to queen, seized the opportunity to contact Meng Guan, Li Zhao, Huang Men Dong Meng, and Sima Wei, the king of Chu who was the military commander of Jingzhou in the palace, launched a coup in March of 291 AD, killed Yang Jun, who was powerful all over the world overnight, and took Yang Jun and his brothers Yang Na, Yang Ji, Yang Miao, the minister of free riding, and Jiang Jun, the secretary of the middle school, and other three ethnic groups.

Coincidentally, Yang Jun’s mansion was the old residence of General Cao Shuang of Cao Wei, and it was truly the same house and fate.

After the coup, Jia Nanfeng issued a series of appointments in the name of the emperor Sima Zhong——

Sima Liang, the king of Runan, was appointed as Taizai, Sima Kan, the king of Qin, as the general, Sima Ting, the king of Dongping, as the general of Fu, Sima Wei, the king of Chu, as the general, Sima Huang, the king of Xiapi, as the minister, and Sima You, the king of Dong’an, as the minister.

Appoint Cavalry Commander Jia Mo (clan brother), Right Guard General Guo Zhang (uncle), and Jia Mi (nephew), who belong to the Jia family’s relatives, to jointly participate in military and political affairs.

Wei Guan, the crown prince, and Sima Liang, the king of Runan, were appointed to record the affairs of Shang Shu together. Zhang Huawei, the young Fu of the crown prince, served as the aide and supervisor of the middle school, Pei Wei as the aide, Pei Kai, the general of Annan, served as the aide and commander of the middle school, and Wang Rong, the right minister of the monk, handled the confidential affairs of the court together.

Through this series of appointments, Queen Jia Nanfeng united Sima’s kings, stabilized the representatives of Confucian classics families, arranged trusted relatives, and truly realized the great unity of the clan, relatives, and courtiers.

This is the political quality of an excellent paperhanger.

After stabilizing the overall situation, Jia Nanfeng secretly ordered Sima Wei, the king of Chu, to kill Sima Liang, the king of Runan, and Tai Bao Wei Guan. Then he said that Sima Wei, the king of Chu, acted without order and executed Sima Wei in the name of “the crime of murder”.

Since then, the decrees of the Jin Dynasty have been issued by the Empress Jia Nanfeng, and Jia Nanfeng has become the true successor of Emperor Wu of Jin and the true paperhanger of the Jin Dynasty.

There is not a good word about Jia Nanfeng in the history books, but in the evaluation of the Jin Dynasty during Jia Nanfeng’s reign, it is said that “although the dark lord is above, the government and the countryside are quiet”.

Those who write history books oppose the female ruling Jia Nanfeng, but recognize Jia Nanfeng’s achievements in governing the country.


Jia Nanfeng’s position in the Jin Dynasty is similar to that of Empress Lv in the Han Dynasty. They are all women with strong personalities who are struggling to maintain the empire.

But there is a big difference between Jia Nanfeng and Empress Lv. Jia Nanfeng took over Emperor Wu of Jin’s country and Empress Lv took over Liu Bang’s country.

Although the rivers and mountains left by Liu Bang were filled with princes with the same surname, those princes with the same surname had no direct contact with the Chang’an court. Although the system of selecting and appointing officials is not perfect, vassal states with personnel and financial power can fully absorb the domestic elite talents.

Although the meritorious officials of the Chang’an court were powerful, they followed Liu Bang to personally establish the Han Dynasty, and their legitimacy and loyalty were unquestionable.

So after taking over the territory left by Liu Bang, Empress Lv could control the struggle to the minimum extent, even if the deposed emperor poisoned the princes and kings, it would be fine until Liu Heng came to replace the king.

But the Jin Dynasty left by Emperor Wu of Jin is like this——

The kings of the Sima family have the power of enfeoffment, military power to defend local areas, and high-ranking court positions. They are almost independent political units and can always compete with imperial power in the capital city of Luoyang.

The Confucian Confucian Confucian family became founding heroes by standing in line, with a very low sense of identification with the Jin Dynasty, and their loyalty to the Sima family remained largely in words.

Without the reform of the Nine-rank system, the poor elites in the Jin Dynasty would have no political way out. They were eager to reshuffle the world in chaos.

The Hu people have been stationed on the border for over a hundred years, and they are drooling over the colorful world of the Jin Dynasty. They also hope that the Jin Dynasty will decline and seize the opportunity to dominate the Central Plains.

Moreover, after Emperor Wu of Jin pacified the State of Wu, he cut down the soldiers and horses of the prefectures, and the large prefectures retained 100 people’s armed forces, while the small prefectures only had 50 people, resulting in the armed forces of the local prefectures being about zero.

Taken together, the above clues can only lead to one outcome, which is that once the time is ripe, the kings of the Sima family will rise up to fight for power in Luoyang, and the impoverished elites who have no way out will undoubtedly contribute to the situation and follow the Sima family kings to find the ladder of chaos.

Faced with chaos, local states and counties had no countermeasures at all, and the Confucian Confucian Confucian family had no resistance.

When the military strength of the Sima kings was exhausted, the Jin Dynasty had no more soldiers to fight against. That was the perfect time for the border Hu people to drink horses from the Yellow River, and the elite of the humble family turned to the Hu people’s command to seek a way out.

So Jia Nanfeng failed to wait for a qualified successor, and even failed to preserve Emperor Wu of Jin’s legacy.


In 299 AD, the crown prince Sima Yu expressed his dissatisfaction with the Jia family. For the sake of the prosperity and safety of the Jia family, Jia Nanfeng encouraged Sima Zhong to abandon the crown prince, and then sent someone to kill Sima Yu with a pestle.

The death of Prince Sima Yu became the spark that ignited the powder barrel of the Jin Dynasty.

In 300 AD, King Sima Lun of Zhao, in the name of “helping the country and eliminating evils for the world”, attacked the imperial palace to kill Jia Nanfeng, Jia Mi, Dong Meng and other trusted people, took Zhang Hua and other officials from the three ethnic groups, and self styled them as the envoy of integrity, the governor of all military affairs, prime ministers, and attendants at home and abroad, “a story of relying on Xuan and assisting Wei with literature”. One year later, he ascended the throne and became emperor.

The last layer of the fig leaf of the Jin Dynasty was torn down by King Sima Lun of Zhao. Since then, the Eight Kings’ Rebellion has begun, and the tragedy of Upheaval of the Five Barbarians is about to be staged.

The experience of history has proven that when the process of history reaches that point, no matter how skilled a paperhanger is, it cannot cover a broken window that has gone through wind and rain.

When Jia Nanfeng died, the Jin Dynasty actually died.

The chaotic times that followed for three hundred years were essentially a repetition of the story of the Jin Dynasty.

For example, in the Northern and Southern dynasties, the system of Zongwang leaving the town followed the example of Sima’s kings guarding the four directions. The great general’s seeking power and usurping the throne was a copy of Sima Lun’s uprising. Racial hatred and the struggle for power among kings, like the Eight Kings’ Rebellion and the Upheaval of the Five Barbarians Rebellion, hid the ambitions of poor elites.

All contradictions are put to the sword, all ambitions are turned into war, and all corrupt policies are directed towards killing.

Chaos, slaughter, war, plague, refugees This is the theme for the next three hundred years.

After three hundred years of chaos, all forces in China have formed a new Dynamic equilibrium, and the Hu people, Han people, aristocratic families, and common people have also gathered new consensus.

On this basis, the fusion of Hu and Han, and the integration of the world and the commons, rose rapidly with the Tang Empire.