Where was the first capital move of the Shang Dynasty_ The first capital move of Shang Dynasty

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The ruins of Zhengzhou Shangcheng is the hustle and bustle capital built by Zhong Ding, the tenth monarch of the Shang Dynasty. Located in the urban area of Zhengzhou, it covers an area of 2500 hectares, starting from fenghuangtai in the East, xishakou in the west, Huayuan road in the north and Erligang in the south. It was discovered in 1950, and a city wall with a circumference of nearly 7 kilometers was found in the middle of the site in 1955. After many archaeological excavations, a large number of relics such as palace foundations, small foundations, pits, wells, trenches, tombs, sacrificial pits, copper casting workshops, pottery workshops, bone making workshops, jade workshops and other sites were found. Relics such as stone tools, clam ware and bronze ware have been unearthed, including precious jade ware, primitive celadon ware, rare Kui dragon pattern gold foil, exquisite Ivory comb, ancient musical instrument stone Cuan, etc.



According to the carbon-14 determination, the site is 3235 ± 90 years old. In addition, the unearthed relics and relics show that the Zhengzhou Shangcheng site is the capital of the mid Shang Dynasty earlier than the Yin Ruins in Anyang. Its discovery filled a large historical gap in the Shang Dynasty before the Yin Ruins in Anyang, and enriched the material materials for the study of ancient Chinese civilization. When Guo Moruo visited Zhengzhou in 1959, he inscribed a poem for the Zhengzhou shopping mall, “Zhengzhou is another Yin Ruins, suspected of being the capital of Kaidu of Zhongding. The underground ancient city is deep and thick, and the relics in the tomb are rich and different”. It fills the gap in the history of the middle and early Shang Dynasty and enriches the material materials for the study of ancient Chinese civilization.

As for the status of Zhengzhou as the capital of Shang Dynasty, the public generally believed that it was the hustle and bustle capital moved by Zhongding. Reasons: ? according to the documentary records, the land view of hustle and bustle is in the urban area of Zhengzhou; ? From the situation of Zhongding’s capital relocation, the hustle and bustle capital is in Zhengzhou; From the archaeological findings, the Erligang period culture in Zhengzhou is between the late Erlitou period in Yanshi, the early Shang culture and the late Shang culture in Yin Ruins. Therefore, Zhengzhou mall can only belong to the hustle and bustle capital in the mid Shang Dynasty.

Zhongding moved from Bo to hustle and bustle, and set the capital here for 9 years; Zhongding’s brother wairen has been the capital here for 10 years. Zhongding and wairen were buried in the uproar.

“Bamboo annals”: “Zhong Ding, a famous village. In the first year of Xin Chou, the king ascended the throne and moved from Bo to Xiao, on the river.”

“Bamboo annals”: “in the sixth year of Zhongding, the army marched on LAN Yi. In the ninth year, Zhi.”

“Bamboo annals”: “wairen, famous hair. In the first year of gengxu, the king ascended the throne and lived in a noisy place. PiRen and zanren rebelled. Ten years, Zhi.”

“Bamboo annals”: “river Pang Jia, the whole name. In the first year of Gengshen, the king ascended the throne, and moved to the phase from the clamor.”

In recent years, with the rise of cultural economy, many places have carried out restorative maintenance of ancient buildings, such as the Jinci temple in Taiyuan. Through reconstruction, these “old buildings” with historical value and cultural symbol significance can be handed down from generation to generation. However, to carry out the so-called “restorative construction” for buildings that have only legends, no textual research, or lack of historical records, it is a bit of putting the cart before the horse.

Take the two ancient city walls in Zhengzhou for example. The cultural relics department of Zhengzhou regards them as “restorative displays” in order to reproduce the basic style of the capital city walls of the Shang Dynasty 3000 years ago. However, such “recoverability” is what “original” of “recovery”. Can it be the same as the original model of the capital city wall of the Shang Dynasty 3000 years ago? In fact, what was the capital city wall of the Shang dynasty like? In addition to the records of a few words in historical classics, it was the result of modern people’s excavation and textual research. Such a result itself is inference and speculation. Isn’t it wrong to “restore” based on such a “result”?

Besides, the times are developing and society is advancing. In such a big city, is it necessary to lift up the earth city wall that fell down thousands of years ago? Because modern society has lost the social foundation for the existence of Tucheng wall. What will Mao do if there is no skin? If the earth city wall, the capital of the Shang Dynasty, is culture, then as a historical and cultural ancient city, in the development history of more than 3000 years, I don’t know how many buildings stood up and fell down. Now, is it necessary to restore the vast number of ancient buildings of all dynasties one by one?

From the perspective of modern people, the erection of a 3300 year old Tucheng wall in a modern metropolis is neither “harmonious”, nor beautiful, nor environmentally friendly. Even local residents are worried about whether the ancient city walls piled with loess will pollute the environment. Zhengzhou itself is a city with more sandstorms.



In fact, now, whether we engage in “restorative display” or “XX site”, most of them are political achievement impulses supported by commercial behavior. They are a means of urban marketing, not for protection, “protection” is just a banner.

No matter how lifelike the temple is, it is also a fake antique. The best built wall of the Shang Dynasty is also a “fake version”. If you really want to inherit and carry forward Chinese traditional culture and protect the existing buildings, it is the right way.

On May 13, 2011, two sections of “antique city walls” appeared on the East Street in the ruins of Zhengzhou mall. According to the Department of cultural relics, the construction of two sections of “antique city walls” is a “restorative Exhibition” project for the ruins of Zhengzhou mall. The “antique city wall” is divided into more than ten layers, and is rammed by the traditional process of ramming the city wall in the Shang Dynasty, in order to reproduce the basic style of the capital city wall of the Shang Dynasty. However, many citizens are quite opposed to this. They think that it is a blind toss to make this “fake version” of the ancient city wall in a prosperous area. At present, what urgently needs to be maintained is the ancient city wall of the Shang Dynasty with a circumference of about 5 kilometers. Due to perennial wind and rain erosion, these ancient city walls or wall foundations collapsed, or the walls fell off, and some units and residents built illegal buildings near the city wall, causing serious damage to the original appearance of the city wall.

On February 22, 2012, on the west side of the intersection of Chengnan Road and Zijingshan road in Zhengzhou, the 800 meter long Zhengzhou mall wall was raised a lot with loess, and it was built with edges and corners, but it may be a quality problem. On the west side of the intersection of Chengnan Road and Nandajie street, a large area of collapse and landslide occurred in the wall built with loess, and the workers are carrying out maintenance. 100 meters west of the intersection of East Street and East Road in Zhengzhou, the original city wall with trees and grass was also covered and raised by loess. On both sides of the city wall on the north side of East Street, there were man-made landslides. The workers admitted that there was a problem with the soil quality and said that the earth should be rammed again here.

In 2013, it was revealed that many pits were dug in the Shang Dynasty city wall site in Zhengzhou, which became a training ground for rock climbers. What the hell is going on?

About 500 meters east of the intersection of Zijingshan road and Shangcheng road in Zhengzhou, this section of the ancient city wall site of the Shang Dynasty usually gathers the most people. The ladder surface of the wall soil layer of the wall site is full of pits the size of feet, and several young people are climbing the wall soil layer. A young man climbed threeorfour meters after running up, but jumped down because of his unstable figure. Two minutes later, he tried again and finally reached the top. Mr. Zhao, who lives nearby, said that usually many people practice rock climbing here. Ms. Liu, who exercised beside the ruins of the city wall, said that after the city wall was repaired, it has become a place for children to play. These pits were dug by children, but later, more and more people climbed, and it became a rock climbing place.



Director Ma of Zhengzhou Shangcheng site protection and management office said that the soil of the city wall was pulled from elsewhere. Digging a hole in the city wall is not considered to damage the cultural relics.

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