Who are the three people in the three prison rebellion_ Reasons for the chaos among the three prisons

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The three prison rebellion is also called the rebellion of governing Cai or the rebellion of Wu Geng. It was the rebellion of three rulers who were enfeoffed in the Shang Wangji area (near Anyang City, Henan Province) in the early Western Zhou Dynasty.

After King Wu destroyed the Shang Dynasty, he listened to the opinions of Duke Dan of Zhou and adopted the policy of “governing Yin with Yin”, enfeoffing Wu Geng, the son of King Zhou, in Yin and using him to rule the people of Yin. At the same time, the king of Wu sent his brothers Guan Shu, Cai Shu and Huo Shu to establish the Three Kingdoms of Xi, Xi and Wei near the Yin capital to monitor Wu Geng, who was known as the “three supervisors” in the history of Wu Geng. It is generally believed that the area north of the capital of commerce is the capital of Shang Dynasty; The area to the south of Shangdu is Xi; The area to the east of Shangdu is Wei.

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King Wu died of illness soon after he destroyed the business. Duke Zhou took over the throne, which aroused doubts among uncle Guan, uncle CAI and their younger brothers. Wu Geng took the opportunity to win over and launch a rebellion. The Zhou Dynasty was faced with a grim situation. Duke Zhou made an eastern expedition, killed Wu Geng, killed Uncle Guan and released uncle CAI. Uncle Huo was abolished as a commoner, and the three prison rebellion was put down.

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There are different opinions on the specific monarchs and territories of the three prisons. According to the latest historical data, there are also different records about the actual initiator and the outcome of the three prison rebellion. One said that Wu Geng, Prince of Zhou, and Guan Shu and Cai Shu, younger brothers of King Wu. It is also said that Guan Shu, Cai Shu and Huo Shu, the younger brothers of King Wu, were armed near Chaoge, the capital of Shang Dynasty, and jointly guarded the territory of Wu Geng. The former theory appeared earlier, and the latter theory was more popular. It is generally believed that the area to the north of Chaoge is Jiahe, which is supervised by Huo Shu; The area to the south of the Chaoge is called “Xi”, which is supervised by Uncle CAI; The area to the east of Chaoge is Wei, supervised by Uncle Guan. The specific figures of the three supervisors: Uncle Guan, brother Zhou, uncle Cai, and uncle Huo. The so-called “prison” means to supervise the adherents of the Shang Dynasty to prevent them from rebelling. Wu Geng is obviously not justified in the list of the three prisons, so it is correct to regard Guan, CAI and Huo as the three prisons.

After the Zhou people gained political power, they retained the sacrifice of the Yin people according to the principle of “destroying the country and offering sacrifices continuously”. In order to bribe the people, appease the adherents of Yin Shang, show their leniency, benevolence and righteousness, and consolidate their political power, King Wu of Zhou sealed Wu Geng, the son of Zhou, in the former land of Yin Shang. King Wu of Zhou was not at ease with Wu Geng after all. He was afraid that he would start a riot, so he divided the original capital around Chaoge into three small countries, i.e. Ying, Ying and Wei, and arranged his younger brothers Guan Shu, Cai Shu and Huo Shu to garrison the three countries, i.e. Wei, Ying and Ying, around the Yin capital to supervise the adherents of the Yin merchants to prevent them from rebelling.

To the north of the dynasty song is the state of Ying, which is 16 kilometers southeast of today’s Tangyin. According to the records of Tangyin County by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing Dynasty, “the city of Ying is 30 miles east of the county. The king of Wu destroyed Yin, enfeoffed the princes, and granted Wu Geng, the son of Zhou, here.” Huo Shu (Ji Chu), the younger brother of King Wu and the eighth son of King Wen, was granted the title of monarch of the state of Ying; The place to the south of the Chaoge is the country. In today’s Niwan of Weihui, the king is uncle CAI (Jidu), the fifth son of King Wen; The place to the east of Chaoge is the state of Wei. In today’s Junxian County, Wei Xian is the third son of King Wen, Guan Shu (Ji Xian). The imperial songs were encircled by Ying, Ying and Wei, which were called “three supervisors” in history.

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The people of Zhou Dynasty were not stable. The powerful enemies looked around. King Wu was worried about state affairs and often couldn’t sleep at night. He said: “Wei Tian built Yin, and its famous people, 360 people, do not show nor destroy the guests, so far. I have not decided on the heavenly protection, why do I have time to sleep!”

In 1043 BC, King Wu became ill and died. King Cheng ascended the throne when he was young, and the Duke of Zhou acted on his behalf. Uncle Guan is the longest brother of the king of Wu. According to the practice of his brother and brother, he is the most qualified Regent. Therefore, he believes that the death order of the king of Wu has been tampered with by the Duke of Zhou. In addition, the ritual system formulated by the Duke of Zhou strictly restricts the influence of princes, which has aroused the dissatisfaction and suspicion of the younger brothers of the king of Wu. According to the book of history, Jin Yong: “Uncle Guan and his younger brothers are rumored in the state that” the general is not good for the children. ” Under such circumstances, Guan, CAI and Wu Geng jointly made trouble.

Wu Geng had long had the ambition to restore the country. At this time, he not only united with the three prisons, but also colluded with Xu, Yan, Bo Gu and other countries in Dongyi, the old land of yin and Shang Dynasties. He rebelled against Zhou and the situation was very serious.

The rebellion of Guan, Cai, Wu Geng and Dongyi seriously threatened the security of the Zhou Dynasty. Duke Zhou united with Duke Zhao and took decisive measures to lead the army to the East. The eastern expedition played an important role in consolidating the Western Zhou Dynasty and expanding its jurisdiction. It is recorded in the book of history, Jin Chong: “in the second year of Duke Zhou’s residence in the East, the sinner was Si de.” Duke Zhou first suppressed the “three prison”, stopped the rumors, killed Uncle Guan and exiled uncle CAI; Wu Geng was also killed, and Yin Si was inherited by the brother of King Zhou. He was founded in the Song Dynasty (now Shangqiu, Henan Province), known as the state of song in history.

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After the fall of Wu Geng, the Duke of Zhou continued his eastern expedition. After three years of hard struggle, the turmoil was brought to an end. The eastern expedition seems to have a wide range. It pursues and attacks hard, and its momentum reaches the south of the Yangtze River. According to Lu’s spring and Autumn period ancient music, “when King Cheng established the Empire, the Yin people rebelled, and the king ordered Duke Zhou to attack it. The merchants served as an elephant and abused the eastern barbarians, so Duke Zhou drove them to the south of the Yangtze River by his teachers.” Circumstantial evidence can be found in the bronze inscriptions when Duke Zhou marched eastward to the south of the Yangtze River. According to the inscription in the Zhuhou Jue unearthed in Dantu, “only in April, the king of Ding Weiwu and the king of Cheng attacked the map of merchants, so the province was in the east or the map. The king was in Zue for dinner. The king ordered the Marquis of Yu to say: ‘the Marquis of Zu… Tin soil, three hundred Jue rivers, thirty-five Jue hundred cities, one hundred you Jue, and tin in Yi. The king has seven surnames; the seventh uncle of Xizheng, fifty Jue men; and the common people of Xizu, sixhundred and six men. The Marquis of Zu, Jue Yang, retired as the Duke of Yu, respected Yi.

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The rebellion of the three eunuchs seriously threatened the ruling order of the Zhou Dynasty. The Duke of Zhou spent three years on the eastern expedition, completely eliminating the remaining forces of the Yin and Shang Dynasties and expanding the territory of the East. In order to consolidate the rule of the Zhou Dynasty in the East, Duke Zhou further built the eastern capital Luoyi and feudal princes. The period of Duke of Zhou, King Cheng and King Kang was a period of stable development of the Western Zhou Dynasty. The punishment was not used for 40 years. It was called “the rule of Cheng Kang” in history.

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