Who is Gao Gang?

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Author: wenbolingsource: wenboling2020 (id: wenboling2020)

Boling said:

Talk about the forgotten founding father Gaogang.


Gaogang’s rise has something to do with the death of two people.

In the early years, the main force of the Red Army made revolution in the south, and Gao Gang followed liuzhidan and xiezichang to carry out military transport in Northern Shaanxi. However, to be realistic, compared with the southern Red Army, the Northern Shaanxi Red Army belongs to a small fight.

In November of 1933, the fifth anti encirclement and suppression campaign in the Central Soviet area began. The red 26 army was rebuilt in Northern Shaanxi. There was only one division. The division commander was wangtaiji, the political commissar was Gao Gang, and the whole army had 500 people. The 27th Red Army, which was established in January 1935, also has only one division. The whole army has 700 people and 300 guns.

As far as the Red Army base areas are concerned, Northern Shaanxi is not strong enough.

It was not until he joined forces with the Red Army 25 of xuhaidong and established the Red Army 15 that the Red Army in Northern Shaanxi had a strong fighting capacity. The generals later recalled that if there were no xuhaidong’s troops, whether the Northern Shaanxi base area could be preserved was a matter of two theories.

But things are changing. It is not a strong Shanbei base area. When it comes to the Central Committee, it will become the foothold of the Central Red Army’s Long March and the starting point for the liberation of China.

This is opportunity.

After the central red army arrived in Northern Shaanxi, it was an external force, and many jobs could only be pushed forward through cadres in Northern Shaanxi. Therefore, it was necessary to find a representative of cadres in Northern Shaanxi to act as an intermediary between the central and local governments.

Although the Red Army 15 Corps can be regarded as a force in Northern Shaanxi, the army commander xuhaidong and political commissar chengzihua came from the South and could not represent Northern Shaanxi. Xie Zichang, who had a higher status than Gaogang, died early. Wang Taiji, who had a similar status with Gaogang, also died early. Yan Hongyan was criticized and transferred to Shanghai and the Soviet Union, leaving northern Shaanxi for many years.

The only people left are liuzhidan and Gaogang.

Liuzhidan died during the eastern expedition to Shanxi in april1936, so only the senior and high-ranking cadres in Northern Shaanxi had ever been the director of the Political Department of the 15th Red Army Corps.

In this way, Gaogang became the representative of the Northern Shaanxi base area.

Therefore, the arrival of the Central Red Army in Northern Shaanxi is not only an opportunity for Northern Shaanxi to make history according to the place names, but also an opportunity for Gaogang’s personal rise. This opportunity was left to him by liuzhidan’s sacrifice.

From then on, Gao Gang’s position began to advance rapidly. From the marginal cadres of the Chinese revolution, he became the security commander of the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region, the cavalry commander of the Eighth Route Army, and the Secretary of the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region. Finally, he became the Secretary of the Northwest Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, alongside the Secretary of the Southern Bureau Zhou Enlai and the Secretary of the central China Bureau Liu Shaoqi.

Mo Wenhua did not understand the rise of Gaogang.

The teacher explained, “when you work in the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region, you should have a good relationship with Gao Gang. You should know that the central government’s policy, if Gao Gang does not nod his head, will not work in the border region.”

Mo Wenhua was unconvinced: “this is a threat to the central government.” The teacher didn’t say much, just asked him how old he was. Mo Wenhua replied that he was 30 years old. The teacher patted him on the shoulder:

“You’re still young. You’ll be fine in a few years.”

What the teacher meant was that mountains exist objectively. Forcibly cutting down the mountains will make the mountains more independent. You have to admit that the mountains contain the mountains before they can gradually collapse.

This truth is not understood by young people, but by middle-aged people who have been honed by the world.

Although the teacher’s “mountain view” is a bonus for Gaogang, it is practical to say that Gaogang, in addition to his qualifications, still uses his personal ability to get the bonus.

After all, a talented teacher will not reuse straw bags.

After becoming the Secretary of the Northwest Bureau in 1941, Gao Gang assisted the teachers in sorting out party affairs and government affairs, and led the large-scale production movement in the Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia border region. Gao Gang contributed greatly to the border region’s smooth passage through economic difficulties.

In 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally. Our party decided to seize the northeast. Gao Gang volunteered to go to the northeast.

In June of the next year, the Northeast Bureau adjusted personnel and division of labor, and LinBiao was promoted to Secretary of the Northeast Bureau. However, due to personality and professional problems, LinBiao was mainly responsible for commanding operations, and others were ignored. Gaogang, deputy secretary of the Northeast Bureau, was responsible for logistics and local construction.

The division of internal and external military and political work between the two of them was clear. When LinBiao needed ammunition, Gao Gang prepared ammunition. When LinBiao needed food and men, Gao Gang sent food and men.

In short, they gave everything they wanted and cooperated very well.

During the Liaoshen campaign, Gao Gang sent LinBiao 80million kilograms of grain and grass, 8000 barrels of oil, and 1.6 million former migrant workers, ensuring the logistics supply for the Liaoshen campaign.

At the end of the campaign, when millions of troops were ready to enter the pass, LinBiao was moved and said to Gaogang, “Lao Gao, I can’t win the war without you.”

It can be said that from the northwest to the northeast, Gaogang was always engaged in logistics construction. This function lasted until the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea.

After the outbreak of the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea, the teacher issued a military order:

“The Chinese people’s volunteer army takes the Northeast administrative region as its general rear base. All rear work supply matters and matters related to assistance to Korean comrades are under the command and responsibility of Comrade Gaogang, commander and political commissar of the Northeast military region.”

As a result, Gao Gang, who has been promoted to Secretary of the Northeast Bureau, chairman of the Northeast People’s government, commander and political commissar of the Northeast military region, has become the first person responsible for the logistics of the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea.

In a short time, he led the Northeast departments to open up three transportation lines to send troops, food, ammunition and other materials to the DPRK. The materials of Soviet aid in the later period also had to be transferred through Gaogang.

Therefore, pengdehuai said that the volunteer army should thank two people for winning the battle ahead, one is Gao Dazi and the other is Hong Dazi. Without them, the volunteer army would not have won the battle.

Gao Da Mazi is Gao Gang, responsible for transporting materials in the rear. Hong Da Mazi is hongxuezhi, who is responsible for the logistics work in the front line as the deputy commander of the volunteer army.

At this time, Gao Gang was a capable man, a good teacher, and an iron comrade in arms of the generals.

However, at the time when the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea broke out, renbishi died.

We have said the story of Ren Bishi before, but we won’t say much here. Just to say one thing, Ren Bishi is the right hand that teachers rely on very much, and is also a very important check and balance force in the group of five.

Renbishi’s sudden death is a great loss to the country and teachers.

When there is a vacancy, someone has to fill it. Teachers also have to look for influential right-hand men who can do things, so Gao Gang appears in the sight of teachers. At the beginning of the establishment of the state, the feudal officials in the major administrative regions had too much power, and they needed to cut down the vassals to a certain extent.

Under such a background, there was the “five horses going to Beijing and one horse taking the lead”.

When the five horses came to Beijing, they were cutting down the vassals. Gao Gang was the first and was the substitute renbishi.


At the end of 1952, Gao Gang came to Beijing to serve as the chairman of the National Planning Commission at the same level as the State Council, thus forming a tripartite pattern in which Liu was in charge of party affairs, Zhou was in charge of government affairs, and senior executives were in charge of the economy.

In terms of economy, it is also in line with his work specialty.

When it comes to the relationship with teachers, Gao is closer than others.

At that time, they worked in Zhongnanhai Building 1, the teacher’s office was on the first floor, and liuzhouzhu’s office was on the second floor. After Gao came, the office was also arranged on the first floor, which was diagonally opposite to the teacher’s office.

If the teacher has something to do, he will say hello and shout it out. If there is any important document, he will write his own comments and send someone to Gao’s office for comments.

At that time, there was a “small meeting of the Central Committee”, where leaders sat together to hold meetings. Mao, Liu and Zhou came to attend the meeting whenever they were free. Mr. Zhu was old and sometimes left without finishing the meeting. Mr. Gao attended every time and never left the meeting.

Sometimes, after a meeting, everyone is separated, and the teacher has to leave Gao to talk alone for one night. After dawn, the teacher went back to bed and Gao went back to work

Mr. Zhu couldn’t stand it anymore. He was afraid that he could not bear it. When Gao came to visit, he drank and asked:

“Xiao Gao, you are so patient. I have to leave every meeting in the daytime. I can’t stand it. But after the meeting, Lao Mao still wants to talk to you. Can you stand it?”

After a high drink, he said, “I have nothing. I am still young and in good health. You can rest assured, boss.”

Old Zhu was worried: “Xiao Gao, I have worked with old Mao for many years. He has a wide range of knowledge. He reads ancient books.”

Gao didn’t know if he understood, but drank silently without saying anything.

Seeing this dialogue, one can not help feeling thousands of people.

However, everyone can see that Gao really takes the lead in entering Beijing. The order of the names behind the important documents has gradually changed from Mao Liu, Zhou Zhu Gao to Mao Gao. However, Gao feels that this ranking is inappropriate and asks for changes again and again before returning to the original.

In any case, everyone knows that the teacher attaches great importance to Gao, and the teacher also points out the cultivation of Gao, hoping that he can become a great player.

This “great achievement” is what we said earlier. The position of the successor forms a check and balance on the other two legs.

It was for this reason that in a private conversation, the teacher personally told Gao to check the enemy puppet files in Northeast China and find the record of Liu’s arrest in Fengtian in 1929.

If you are firm and unyielding, that’s all. If you are not firm, this record is a sharp weapon that can be hit at any time.

There are few people who can make teachers close to this job.


Of course, it is certainly not comprehensive to say that it is for personal power that Gao checks and balances the other two legs.

The real difference between them is the line and organization.

In 1949, Gao called a meeting of northeast cadres and made a statement:

“We should try our best to make the farmers rich, so that the vast majority of farmers have plenty of food and clothing, but we should also allow farmers to develop from individuals to collectives, and systematically establish supply and marketing cooperatives, so that farmers will not be exploited by businessmen.”

His view is to oppose free competition among farmers and uphold the leadership of the proletarian regime.

After the meeting, the Northeast Bureau, in accordance with the spirit of the meeting, wrote the work instructions for rural branches and sent them to the organization department for a reply. Liuhe, deputy director of the Organization Department, anziwen, concluded that:

“Can the current mutual aid group for job change develop into a collective farm? I don’t think it’s possible. It’s a revolution in the mode of production from individual production to collective farms. Collective farms without machinery industry can’t be consolidated. Only with the conditions of machinery and tools in the future can we lead the implementation of collective farms.”

His view is that free competition should be allowed for a period of time, and socialist transformation should be carried out when conditions are ripe.

Gao and Liu couldn’t agree, so they submitted their reply to the teacher. When the teacher saw Liu’s words, “dissatisfaction is shaped by color”, he directly supported Gao’s view.

In 1951, a similar argument arose.

The Shanxi provincial Party committee submitted a report on improving mutual aid organizations in the old areas, which said:

“The gradual strengthening of the two progressive factors of public accumulation and distribution according to work in the mutual aid organizations will make the mutual aid organizations in the old areas a step forward. As for the private foundation, it should not be consolidated, but should be gradually shaken, weakened, or even denied.”

The report was submitted to the North China Bureau and reported to Liu, who wrote the comments:

“Gradually shaking, weakening and even negating the foundation of private ownership is a wrong, dangerous and utopian idea of agricultural socialism. This document from Shanxi is an example of this idea. It is printed and distributed to all responsible comrades.”

In this debate, Gao supported the opinions of Shanxi and the teachers supported Gao’s attitude. Bo opposed Shanxi’s views, and Liu supported Bo’s attitude.

It can be seen that a general debate broke out in the early days of the founding of the country. The northeast and North China, as well as the high-level and local governments, have their own persistence and attitudes.

The above is the debate with Liu, while the focus of the debate with Zhou is the reform of the new tax system.

In december1952, the Government Affairs Council promulgated a new tax system, which stipulated that all public and private enterprises should pay taxes equally. This policy is fair, but the result is that public enterprises pay more taxes and private enterprises pay less, which is conducive to capitalism and not conducive to socialism.

Moreover, before the promulgation of the new tax system, the Government Affairs Council did not report to the central government, and the teachers were angry:

“Before the revision of the tax system, we did not report it to the central government, but we discussed with the capitalists. It is a right opportunistic mistake to regard the capitalists more seriously than the central government. Moreover, it is a transitional period. Whether to transition to socialism or capitalism is a question.”

Because of the argument with them, the teacher took advantage of the opportunity of the five horses’ arrival in Beijing to make new arrangements in personnel and organization.

The eight ministries of the Government Affairs Council are under the jurisdiction of the State Development Planning Commission, and Gao is responsible for the economy.

Dong, Peng and Luo are responsible for political and legal work.

Chen, Bo and Dengzihui are responsible for the financial work.

The then Minister of publicity was responsible for culture and education.

Diplomacy is in the charge of Zhou.

Rao is responsible for the organization department.

After this arrangement, Zhou was actually deprived of the final decision-making power of the Government Council. Liu’s personnel power was restrained. Gao Ze established the so-called economic cabinet. In addition to the well-known teachers’ favor, Gao actually became the fourth person.

If it goes on like this, the teacher’s goal will be basically achieved. First, there will be three pillars of confrontation and mutual checks and balances, and second, there will be right-hand men in the line and organization, who can help with major and minor matters.

As for the replacement, it doesn’t mean that it can be replaced. We must first admit the mountain top, and then collapse the mountain top when the time comes. These all take time. The task now is to unite and look ahead.

But Gao was wrong. He thought that the teacher really wanted to change people, so he drifted away.


Gao is a big man. He is informal at best, but he is rude at worst.

Often during meetings, dozens of people read materials or make speeches in the conference room. They roll up their trouser legs and rub their leg hair. Then they twist the rubbed leg hair together and light it with a match, making the room full of the smell of burning leg hair.

He doesn’t care if others cover their noses to express their dissatisfaction.

With such a rude character, it is impossible to do things carefully.

Since becoming the No. 4 person, Gao felt that he had deeply understood the teacher’s meaning, and his ambition was stimulated by the wrong judgment, so he began to seriously overthrow Liu.

At that time, anziwen put forward a list of members of the eight political bureaux. There were thin names in the list, but no Lin.

After it was handed over to the teacher, the teacher was particularly angry and criticized an at the meeting, saying that you are only a vice minister and have no qualifications for such a large list. This matter is over and no disclosure is allowed.

Ann is certainly not qualified to make a list. He uses the list made by others to cast stones and ask for directions.

Later, the teacher showed Gao the list and asked him not to leak after reading it. Gao also agreed. But from this list, Gao sees opportunities:

“Lin is a cadre of the Soviet Area and the army. What does it mean that there is no Lin in the list?”

Therefore, Gao put forward the argument of the white area Party and the red area party, saying that the teachers represent the red area and Liu represents the white area. The country was fought down by the people of the red area, but now the political power is in the hands of the people of the white area and should be thoroughly reorganized. Moreover, the fact that the list was spread everywhere implied that the people in the white areas should establish the Red areas, and our people in the Red areas should unite.

Speaking of this argument, Gao Bian was no longer a person, but became a representative of the soldiers in the Soviet Area, supported by Peng Lin and other soldiers.

From June to August of 2003, the central government held a financial and economic conference. Gao took the lead in criticizing Bo and prepared to take this as a breakthrough to overthrow Liu. During the conference, he took more than ten people’s congresses to visit Lin in Xishan.

It is obvious that Lin is not on your list, but Lin is with us.



Influenced by Gao and having personal grudges with Liu, Rao began to track down the private list in the organization department. Naturally, he tracked down Liu behind the scenes through an, so he criticized Liu at the organization meeting in September.

Now it is said that it is the alliance of Gao he raoyou. In fact, it is not. They had no intersection before. Now they have just entered Beijing and will not have deep friends. The reason why they act at the same time is only because they have the same goal.

But they went too far. They were afraid that others would not know. It was far beyond the teacher’s plan. Even ye came and asked, “what’s the matter with thin trees but no forests?”

The teacher was a little surprised: “how do you know? I want to check this matter.”

He was very angry and asked Gao, “who leaked it out, did you forgive it?” This was an opportunity for him to admit his mistake, but Gao didn’t catch it, bypassed the topic and said, “will you forgive me?”

Then the teacher found something bad.

Originally, he just wanted to check and balance. Who knew that Gao He Rao was so far away that he had the potential to flatten Lushan Mountain and stop the rotation of the earth. If they are allowed to continue, they will not be able to unite to do their work, and may even lead to a split between the red and white, between the military and the government, and between the central and local governments.

1953 was just the end of the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea and the beginning of domestic economic construction. What was most needed was unity and what was least needed was division. Once division occurred, it would cause irreparable harm to the country.

The teacher decided to clean up the mess, but still wanted to give them a chance.

He asked Liu, Chen and Gao to hold a meeting and make self-criticism. As a result, both Liu and Chen made a profound self-examination, but Gao downplayed it and did not actively engage in unity.

The teacher was very disappointed. On December 24, he said “two headquarters, one blowing the Yang wind and the other blowing the Yin wind”.

Perhaps from these words, Gao judged the wind direction and knew that he was going to fail. He was somewhat disheartened.

But the teacher gave him a chance.

In February, 1954, before the Fourth Plenary Session of the Seventh Central Committee, I heard that Gao wanted to talk to him in Hangzhou. The teacher said that he would not come to Hangzhou. He asked Gao to talk to Liu, Zhou and Deng to see what he wanted to say and whether there was a chance to save.

The three of them talked with Gao for several times, but Gao never admitted his mistakes, so they didn’t come up with any results. Later, according to Gao’s wife, Gao sewed more than 20 sleeping pills in his crotch before going to talk.

This is preparing to commit suicide if arrested.

As an old revolution that has been going through ups and downs for decades, it will not survive a little setback, and its ability to resist blows is really poor.

Because of the high attitude, there is no suspense here. He offended Liu on the route and Zhou on the position, and did not bow his head to admit his mistake and engage in unity, which made the teachers unable to protect him.

If we forcibly maintain the height, we will break with the other two people. The price is too high. If we want to unite with the other two people, we must abandon our high position.

How to choose is not difficult.

Therefore, Gao, who was famous, became the object of criticism, and Rao was also criticized together.

From now on, Gao still has a chance to turn over, but the premise is to survive and wait another 12 years. In fact, the teacher thought so, and gave him another chance.

In february1954, after Gao He Rao was approved, the teacher planned to let Gao return to Shaanxi to be the Secretary of the local Party committee. Later, the matter would be discussed later. As a result, the news of Gao’s attempted suicide came before he could send someone to talk about it.

When the teacher heard the news, his face was full of disgust. He felt that he had lost sight of it. He said to the Secretary, “don’t mention anything about the northwest. Let him go.”

Gao turned over hopelessly. Half a year later, he swallowed sleeping pills and killed himself.

When a person dies like a lamp goes out, there is no room for the case to be overturned. It has become an iron case. Rao has been locked up for 20 years, wasting time.

In april1955, Gao Heruo announced that Lin filled Gao’s vacancy, was elected a member of the Political Bureau, and was promoted to vice chairman in three years.

History has entered a new stage.

When I write here, I think of two old words:

Once you lose your life, you will be doomed.

A slip of foot has become eternal regret. Looking back, it has been a hundred years.

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