Who is the first earth God recorded in Shanhaijing? It turned out to be the Yellow Emperor, the ancestor of Chinese culture

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Many people don’t know who the first earth God recorded in Shanhaijing is. Next, I’ll enjoy it with the editor of China story network.

According to the development process of human mythology, the earliest gods should be the natural gods of primitive society, mainly including earth God, heaven God, Sun God and moon god. The book of mountains and seas records the deeds of the sun god Xihe, the heaven God Dijun and the moon god Changxi, but the earth God cannot be found. At present, the lowly and short land lord in Taoist mythology seems to have little connection with the ancient god in the book of mountains and seas. Then, who is the first earth God in Chinese mythology? Some scholars believe that this ancient god is second only to the Jade Emperor in Taoist mythology.


When it comes to earth gods, readers who have some knowledge of Taoist myths will immediately think of the land of the late earth emperor, which is commonly known as the “Empress of the late earth”. She is one of the “four emperors” of Taoism, and the mother of the earth who dominates the Yin and Yang worlds and all natural things. However, the Empress Dowager was only granted the throne by the imperial court in the Song Dynasty, requiring the people to worship her in the same standard as the Jade Emperor. Houtu did exist in history, but it was not a goddess. In the ancient myths recorded in the book of mountains and seas, Houtu is a male, who is the descendant of Yan Emperor.

The “haineixi Sutra” of the “classic of mountains and seas” introduces the pedigree of the Yan Emperor family. The book records that Houtu is the direct descendant of Yan Emperor, the fourth son of the God of water Gonggong, and the grandfather of giant Kuafu. According to the northern classic of the great wilderness, Houtu was the Minister of the Yellow Emperor, helping him manage land and farming. In the “songs of Chu”, Houtu is still the ancient Lord God of the underworld. He and the beast Tu Bo live in the Youdu mountain, where all souls converge after people die. According to the relevant records in the book of mountains and seas, Houtu is indeed like a god of the earth.

So, who is this ancient god? In fact, Houtu is Houji recorded in the historical records. He is the ancestor of Zhou people. In the Shang Dynasty, Emperor Jun, the God of heaven, was the main god of sacrifice, while in the Zhou Dynasty, Hou Ji, the God of the earth, was the main god of sacrifice. The so-called “state” originated from here. In addition, the word “Hou” is a honorific title. In oracle bone inscriptions, the pictographic meaning is mound, which symbolizes the earth God, or the supreme ruler of the world. Therefore, the monarch of the Xia Dynasty is called “Hou”, and the family of Dayu is also called the Xia Hou surname.

So, is Houtu the first earth God? Of course not. The book of mountains and seas has already told us the answer: the first earth God is the ancient great God – the Yellow Emperor Xuanyuan. In the book of mountains and seas, the God Dijun dominates all things, and the Yellow Emperor Xuanyuan dominates the world. “Zhongshan Sutra” records: “the Yellow Emperor is surrounded by four sides”. This is not to say that the Yellow Emperor has four faces, but that the Yellow Emperor dominates the land of China. Ancient four gods, Ju Mang, zhurong, zaoshou and Yu Qiang, were all earth gods appointed by the Yellow Emperor. In addition, the original meaning of the title of Yellow Emperor is the God of the earth, because the land is yellow.


Later, Taoist mythology rose, and the earth God Yellow Emperor was incorporated into the Taoist immortal system. After riding the Yellow Dragon to become an immortal, the Yellow Emperor became Zhongtian purple micro Arctic emperor. Ziwei emperor is the first of the “four emperors” of Taoism, second only to the Jade Emperor. From the Qin and Han Dynasties to the Song Dynasty, the status of the earth God declined step by step, and finally evolved into a short earth God. There is an important reason: the earth God was actually concurrently held by the rulers of successive dynasties. Because the emperors of all dynasties call themselves “the son of heaven”, is it the king’s land under the whole world. The monarch no longer needs a God who dominates the earth, and the function of the land lord is limited.

It can be seen that the crape myrtle emperor in Taoist mythology and the earth God recorded in the book of mountains and seas are actually the same person. He is the ancestor of Chinese civilization – the Yellow Emperor. Disclaimer: the above content originates from the network, and the copyright belongs to the original author. Please inform us if your original copyright is infringed, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.

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