Who was the culprit that led to the third of the world in the late Eastern Han Dynasty?

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At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, eunuchs were in power, the world was in chaos, and the people were in dire straits. He Jin, a senior general, could not have been harmed by his plan to kill eunuchs. Dong Zhuo, a shepherd of Bingzhou who was called by He Jin (also a former general and “Xiang Hou”) was already on his way to Luoyang. At the same time, Dong Zhuo was ordered by He Jin to write a Book: “Chang Chang attends to Zhang rang and others who steal the favor and spoil the sea. In the past, Zhao Yang promoted the armour of Jinyang to chase away the evil of the monarch. Ministers often ring bells and drums like Luoyang, that is, to beg for concessions.” She tried to intimidate the Empress Dowager to kill eunuchs, but he Jin died before DongZhuo arrived. At that time, Luoyang was in chaos. The brothers Yuanshu and yuanshao led their troops to attack the imperial palace. Duan Si and other officials of Zhongchang took the emperor away from xiaopingjin. DongZhuo led his troops to Beimang to welcome the Han Emperor back to the palace.

After that, Dong Zhuo was tyrannical and inhumane when he was in power. He also designed the killing for Lv Bu, Wang Yun and others. It’s a pity that Wang Yun was too straightforward. At that time, he made a strategic mistake, that is, he did not immediately pardon Dong Zhuo’s large number of subordinates who were in charge of military power. The officers of Dong Zhuo’s subordinates, such as lichui, Guosi, Zhang Ji, and so on, were stationed in Shaanxi. After a period of time, they had not heard the news of the pardon. Then there was a rumor that the people in Luoyang wanted to kill all the officials of Dong Zhuo’s headquarters in Liangzhou. Therefore, everyone was in a panic, and they were ready to disarm and flee, At this time, Jia Xu came on stage.

Jia Xu is a native of guzang, Wuwei. When he was young, he was not famous. Only yanzhongyi of Hanyang said that Jia Xu had the wonder of Zhang Liang and Chen Ping. Yanzhong is also a famous man of a generation, and he has a lot of political foresight. He was one of the few people who knew that the Eastern Han Dynasty was terminally ill. He once persuaded the famous general Huang Fusong to set up troops to overthrow the Eastern Han Dynasty. If Huang Fusong refused, his loyalty would die. Later in the hero’s tale, it was said that “the thief king of Liangzhou and other countries set up troops and robbed loyalty as the main force, unified 36 departments, and rode No. 1 general. Loyalty lamented that he fell ill and died.”

At the beginning of Jiaxu’s career, he was a minister of filial piety. He resigned due to illness and returned to the West. He met Di people (nomads) on the road. They captured dozens of people along with him. Jiaxu deceived them and said, “my uncle and nephew Duan, don’t bury me. My family will redeem me.” At that time, Duan, a senior general in the town, was so powerful that he pretended to be Duan’s nephew to frighten the Di people. The Di people did not dare to kill him. They swore with him to send him back, but the rest were killed. The history said that Jia Xu’s move was “power to help the people, and salt is the same”. The word “power” was used appropriately, because Jia Xu was such a person.

When lichui, Guosi, Zhang Ji and others under Dong Zhuo were about to break up, Jia Xu stopped them. His reason was: “I heard that the people of Liangzhou were about to be killed in Chang’an, but you abandoned all the people in a single line, that is, one Pavilion can bind you. It is better to lead the people to the west, where you are, to take back troops to attack Chang’an, to avenge Duke Dong, and to serve the country to conquer the world. If not, you will have no future.” He did this because he was also an official of Dong Zhuo’s department. It was recorded that “when Dong Zhuo came to Luoyang, he claimed that he would take the Taiwei as the lieutenant of Pingjin and move to the Lu school. Zhuo’s son-in-law Zhonglang stationed Niu Fu in Shaanxi and claimed that he was in the auxiliary army. Zhuo was defeated and the auxiliary army was dead”. Therefore, he also intended to do this for himself, a scholar who has no strength to bind chickens. Because Li, Guo and others were born as horsemen and soldiers, they may not be able to be captured by a pavilion commander.

The direct consequence of his move was that Li Guo et al “So he took all of them to the West and gathered them to Chang’an. More than 100000 people surrounded Chang’an city with fan Chou, Li Meng, Wang Fang, etc., the part of Zhuo Gu. On the 10th day, the city fell and fought against Bu in the city, and bu was defeated. He urged them to send troops to rob the old and young people of Chang’an, and killed them all. The dead were in a mess. The king of Zhuo agreed to kill Zhuo in the city… He urged them to enter Chang’an City, garrison the south palace and Yemen, and kill Lu Kui, Dahong Lu, Zhou Huan, the imperial servant, cuilie, the city gate captain, and Wang Qi, the Yueqi school captain. Officials The people and the dead are countless. “Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty was coerced by Li, Guo, etc., and the heroes of Kanto took advantage of the turmoil to start a large-scale attack on cities and lands to expand their own power. Before that, the local princes did not dare to carry out such acts too blatantly. It was Jia Xu’s proposal that plunged the Eastern Han Dynasty into unprecedented chaos.

Since then, because of Li, Guo and others’ struggle for power and profits, the casualties in Guanzhong were huge, which greatly damaged the productivity and social development in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River at that time. The annals of the Three Kingdoms says:

At that time, hundreds of thousands of people (referring to the time before Li and Guo entered Luoyang) were still living in Sanfu. They urged them to release troops to rob the city. The people were hungry and had a little food for two years. Another saying goes: “when the emperor enters Luoyang, the imperial palaces are burned out, the streets are deserted, and all officials are covered with thorns. There are no more soldiers in the prefectures and counties to defend themselves. The hungry and poor are even worse. Under shangshulang, they go out to harvest trees or starve to death.”

Li, Guo and other four people’s fierce poisoning of Guanzhong came from Jia Xu’s plan to trace the origin. Therefore, peisongzhi commented on the annals of the Three Kingdoms:

Chen Songzhi thought that it was said that “benevolent people’s words are extremely beneficial”! However, if you don’t speak kindly, the reason must be the opposite. The benevolence skill is difficult to achieve, but the chaos source is easy to achieve. Therefore, there is a disaster opportunity, which will bring disaster to the people all over the world. At that time, when the yuan evil was already an owl, the heaven and earth began to open, resulting in the heavy knot of the fierce ranks, the great stem of Yan Liu, the grief of the nation and the desolation of the country, and the coolness of the rest of the Li people’s baby weeks, wouldn’t Jia Xu say a few words? What a great sin! Since ancient times, there has been no such chaos.

According to the situation at that time, Wang Yun was upright and talented. There were still famous generals such as huangfushong and Zhujun in the court, and tens of thousands of elite soldiers in the Guanzhong pass. However, eunuchs had been eliminated. Even if the Han Dynasty could not be revived, it would still be possible to settle down for a while. Therefore, peisongzhi said that “the world began to open after the original evil was an owl”. Therefore, in such a case, it is not too much to say that Jia Xu’s words have led to “the sadness of the state and the coolness of the people and the rest of the children”. Moreover, it is also very pertinent to say that “the sin of Xu is so great! There has been no such thing as chaos since ancient times”.

It is precisely because of this turmoil that the central government’s decrees of the Han Dynasty began to fail in the world. The emperor and the imperial court had no authority at all, and there was no possibility of their rise:

When riding the public opinion, you live in the thorny fence, and the door is not closed. The emperor and his officials would meet. The soldiers would watch over the fence and laugh at each other. The generals had the power to kill the Chancery. When the officers of Sili came in and out, the militia fought against them. All the generals either sent their maidservants to save themselves, or drank wine from themselves, and drank wine from the son of heaven. They were unable to serve. They shouted and swore, so they could not stop. He also expressed his worship to the people of the camp walls as a part of his ritual. Doctors and soldiers are all school captains. The imperial historian did not provide them with seals. They were drawn in cones, with words on them, or from time to time. The generals are unable to coordinate and are in disorder.

– the annals of the Three Kingdoms – Biography of Dong Zhuo

So far, it can be said that the status and prestige of the central government of the Han Dynasty have completely disintegrated. Even when Emperor Xian returned to Luoyang, “every prefecture and county supports its soldiers for self-defense, and there is no one who can do so”. The local princes have no longer taken the emperor and the central government seriously.

Such a situation was not changed until Cao Cao, a talented and broad-minded man, adopted the proposal of xunjiu, a powerful official of the Wei Dynasty, and took the lead in welcoming Emperor Xian back to Xuchang and holding the emperor to make the princes. More than 20 years later, Cao Pi, the son of Cao Cao, finally replaced the Han Dynasty with Wei, ending the Eastern Han Dynasty and beginning the Three Kingdoms era.

From the time Jia Xu designed Li and Guo to march into Luoyang, to the time when the Three Kingdoms returned to Jin, the war lasted for more than 90 years. During the more than 90 years’ War, the capital accumulated by the two Han Dynasties, including valuable human resources, was completely exhausted, including the politicians, strategists and militarists who grew up at the beginning of the split in the late Eastern Han Dynasty and were deeply aware of the hardships of the people and the political and economic contradictions at that time, and who were highly talented. In the end, the political power fell into the hands of some dandies and literati who only knew the talk, With the support of their sense of superiority, they only knew how to indulge in pleasure or indulge in idle talk. At the same time, the phenomenon of the door sect of Sun Quan Zhaoji developed extremely, which finally led to the intensification of contradictions in class, race, economy and other aspects throughout the country. Therefore, less than 20 years after the reunification of the Three Kingdoms, the Central Plains was once again in a pool of blood. The Jin Dynasty moved eastward from the “rebellion of the eight kings” and the nomads in the North invaded on a large scale, The result was the darkest and bloodiest page in Chinese history – “five random Chinese”.

It can be said that the three hundred years of turmoil and bloodshed caused by the “five indiscriminate policies” were triggered only by Jia Xu’s words.

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