Why did Duke Huan of Qi attack Chu first solve the problem of CAI state

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It was the middle of the spring and Autumn period from the accession of Duke Huan of Qi (-685) to the convening of the military elimination conference led by Xiang Xu, a doctor of the state of song (-546). The five hegemons in the spring and Autumn period mainly appeared in this period, so this period can also be called the hegemonic period.

In order to seek hegemony, Duke Huan of Qi’s top priority is to change the situation of “barbarians in the South and Dijiao in the north, and China is endless”.

Compared with the Chu state, the Rongdi forces in the north are weaker, and they have gone deep into the hinterland of China, but the harm is greater. So deal with Rong Di first. After a series of wars, the countries allied by Duke Huan of Qi basically did not allow the forces of Rong and Di to invade the south of the Yellow River.

Of course, we should also carry out rescue work for countries seriously damaged by Rongdi. Under the attack of Rong Di, the territory of the state of Wei was destroyed. Duke Huan of Qi sent troops to protect the refugees in the state of Wei and also provided relief supplies. Xing Guo also received similar treatment. It is said that with the help of Duke Huan of Qi, the people of the state of Wei and the people of the state of Xing are very happy. The so-called “if Xing moves back, the state of Wei will forget to die”. The original territory of Xing state fell, so the whole country had to move, but the feeling of moving was the same as going home. As for the people of Wei country, they are so happy that they forget that they have already died and returned home.

This is all praise for Duke Huan of Qi. The Chinese people have a tradition of turning disaster relief work into a celebration. Of course, compared with the famous words after Wenchuan, “the chairman calls, the Premier calls, the party loves the country, and the voice goes into the ruins”, the praises of the spring and Autumn period appear to be too weak.

However, Chu in the south is not so easy to deal with. So the state of Qi did not dare to act rashly until the third year of Duke Lu (-657), a small thing happened.

Duke Huan of Qi is lecherous and has many wives. Three formal ladies; Six people who enjoy the treatment of a wife instead of a wife. This is the so-called “as a wife”. Later, I called the second wife more politely, such as Madam, from here. We won’t mention the rest.

On that day, one of Duke Huan and his wife, the younger sister of the king of the state of CAI, was called Cai Ji in the history books, and the two were boating. Cai Ji is naughty and always moves on the boat, making the boat wobble. Duke Huan of Qi’s generation of overlords, but afraid of water, his face turned pale and said, “don’t move, don’t move.”

At this time, I will ask the female students present. When your boyfriend, who has always been very windy, suddenly freaked out for a little shit, and you know that there is no danger, will you choose to comfort him or continue to frighten him at this time?

(in class, there is a 90% probability that the girls will say in unison: scare him!)

This is the same heart. Cai Ji’s idea is the same as that of today’s girls. The more afraid Qi HuanGong is, the more she jumps and jumps, making Qi HuanGong almost out of his mind. After landing, Wei Feng came back and began to rage: “go home, don’t you!”

He drove them back to the state of CAI, but he did not go through divorce procedures.

This was not a big deal. The couple quarreled, and the woman went back to her mother’s house. What’s this? But the problem is that the king of Cai Guo is also very grumpy. My sister is so good that you even rushed her back: “OK, sister, don’t bother, brother, I’ll find you another husband.” He married his sister again.

Duke Huan of Qi was angry: “there is no divorce!”

So in the spring of the next year, he gathered Eight Allied forces — Qi, Lu, song, Chen, Wei, Zheng, Xu, Cao, and just eight — to fight Cai Guo. Of course, Cai Guo couldn’t fight, so “Cai Rou”. But if you think about it, is it too much for Duke Huan of Qi to defeat a country just for his little family dispute? So there was no withdrawal, and the army continued to move south until it reached Zhaoling, which was close to the border of Chu.

The author of Zuo Zhuan must be very happy to fight the state of Chu. Our ancient prose is very particular about expression. Duke Huan of Qi attacked the state of CAI. He said that Duke Huan of Qi “invaded Cai” and made an aggressive “invasion”; When he went to fight the state of Chu, he said, “so he attacked Chu”, and fell into a crusade “attack”. This shows that the nature of war has changed from injustice to justice.

The king of Chu sent an emissary to see Duke Huan of Qi, and his words were also very strange: “your state of Qi is far away from our state of Chu. Cows and horses can’t run together when they are in heat. Why did you run here?”—— Leave an idiom, called “the wind, horses and cattle are different”.

— there are two explanations for this wind, one is missing, the other is estrus. The lost cattle and horses of the state of Qi can’t run to the state of Chu; Or, the cows and horses in Qi’s oestrus can’t run to Chu. Combined with the antecedents, it seems appropriate to explain estrus.

Guan Zhong stood up and said, “what you said is wrong. We didn’t hit you for something in heat. The reason for hitting you:

“First, our late monarch Tai Gong was once authorized by the central government of the Zhou Dynasty, and your state of Chu is also within the scope of our crusade; second, we really should hit you, and your state of Chu is guilty!”

Next, Guan Zhong said two crimes of the state of Chu.

“ERGONG Baomao is not suitable, the king’s sacrifice is not common, and there is no way to shrink the wine”, — a kind of herb produced in Chu is called JINGMAO, and the bundled JINGMAO is called Baomao. The state of Chu should pay tribute to Zhou Tianzi Baomao, which is used to filter wine during sacrifice. The process of filtering wine is called “shrinking wine”. Now that you don’t pay tribute to vanilla, the sacrifice of the son of heaven is not standardized. This is your first sin.

“King Zhao’s southern expedition is gone”, — think that if King Zhao of Zhou failed to return to the southern expedition, he died within the sphere of influence of the state of Chu. This is your second sin.

Guan Zhong asked cunningly about these two sins.

“You didn’t pay tribute to that herb!” How big is this? The state of Chu felt that he should admit his mistake. Anyway, there was no consequence in admitting his mistake.

“The king of Zhao marched South and did not return.” the son of heaven died here, which is definitely a great sin. But who is king Zhao of Zhou? The founding father of the Western Zhou Dynasty, King Wu of Zhou, the son of King Wu, King Cheng, the son of King Cheng, King Kang, the son of King Kang, is this king Zhao of Zhou. It’s still in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. It’s hundreds of years old between Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Huan of Chu. Why do you hit me and calculate this old debt hundreds of years ago?

And how did king Zhao of Zhou die? He was not killed by our Chu people. That’s because… The ship he was on was Titanic. When it sank on the Han River, he drowned. Although it is said that we Chu people did some tricks on the ship. There were no nails on the ship, but it was glued together with glue. As a result, the ship came to the center of the river and broke up as soon as the wind and waves hit, but you have no evidence? So the emissary of the state of Chu answered simply, “go to the water to ask about this!” (“you ask the waterfront!”)

In fact, if you really want to ask for a crime, the state of Chu has a much larger crime to ask, that is, “all the beauties of Hanyang, Chu really do.”. what do you mean? In those days, Zhou Tianzi feudal a number of countries with the surname Ji on the North Bank of the Han River (Yangshui in the south of the mountain and Yangshui in the north, Hanyang is the North Bank of the Han River). Now many of these countries have been annexed by the state of Chu. This is your sin.

Guan Zhong didn’t dare to ask about this crime. Once asked, the state of Chu would not be able to prevaricate. “All the beauties in Hanyang are really done.” ha, well, I did it. Now it’s definitely impossible to spit out these countries again. If we want to fight, we’ll fight.

At this time, the state of Qi dared not fight against the state of Chu. At that time, the expansion momentum of the state of Chu was so fierce that although it was a coalition of eight countries, it was still difficult to predict the victory or defeat of the war. Moreover, when the Qi army arrived at Zhaoling, the supply line was dragged out for a long time, which was even more disastrous; Of course, the state of Chu did not dare to fight with the state of Qi. He also knew that no matter who won or lost such a big battle, the winning party could only win miserably, which was not good for anyone.

So in the end, everyone shouted. The state of Qi said, “who can resist the numerous battles? Who can defeat the city by attacking it?” There are many people in Qi. Who can stop it? What city can’t be attacked? The state of Chu said: in the state of Chu, “the square city is the city, and the Han River is the pool”. Take the Fangcheng mountain as the city wall and the Han River as the moat. No matter how many people you have, there is no place to use it.

Everyone shouted, but no one dared to fight. But anyway, it was a little bit to curb the momentum of Chu’s northward expansion.

This paragraph is a famous piece of Zuo Zhuan, which is famous for its strong literariness. People who study history, of course, think it can’t be so simple. It is generally believed that Duke Huan of Qi’s expedition to the south of Chu was a well planned military action.

First of all, in previous years, the state of Qi had won back Zheng, who had already surrendered to the state of Chu, through a series of military and diplomatic activities; Secondly, Duke Huan of Qi has just established diplomatic relations with the two small states under the nose of the state of Chu, the state of Jiang and the state of Huang—— It is obvious that we are building a bridgehead to attack Chu.

As for “Cai Ji boating”, it is probably just an excuse. To attack Chu, it was necessary to attack Cai first. Why? This involves another famous gossip event.

About 20 years (-684) before Duke Huan of Qi attacked Chu, the youngest daughter of the monarch of state Chen married to Xiguo. In Zuo Zhuan, she is called Xi GUI, which is also the famous madam Xi.

From the state of Chen to the state of Xi, it is necessary to pass through the state of CAI. At that time, caiguojun and caiai Houji Xianwu were not outsiders, and his wife was Mrs. Xi’s sister. As a result, when Cai AI Hou saw his sister-in-law, he really didn’t treat himself as an outsider. “Zuo Zhuan” wrote two words: “Fubin.” Your behavior is not at all polite to guests.

What did Cai aihou do? I don’t know In short, the consequences were very serious. The king of Xiguo was furious when he heard about it. However, he decided to retaliate.

But his method of revenge was really stupid. The king of Xi Guo sent someone to find King Wen of Chu for help: “you sent troops to attack me, and I asked Cai Guo for help. Cai Guo and I are brother-in-law, and he will certainly come to save me. When he comes, we will fight it together.”

Chu is thinking about how to expand northward. Is there anything else you don’t want from the licensed goods delivered to your door? Cai aihou was also fooled. He was led by the head of Xingxing to save Xiguo, but he was beaten by the Chu army, which had long been in ambush, and became a prisoner of the Chu army.

After understanding the cause and effect, do you say caiaihou is worried? I’m here to help you. You’re so evil to me! So he went to King Wen of Chu: “Your Majesty, do you know why Xi Guo asked you to arrest me? This is such a thing. His wife is so beautiful!”

So the king of Chu went to say hello to the king of Xiguo, “I heard your wife is very beautiful. Show it to me!” A look, very good, I want it, well, you rest country, I also want it.

Therefore, Mrs. Xi became the wife of King Wen of Chu, – as we mentioned earlier, the wife Wen, who Ling Yin of Chu led a group of happy boys to go to, was her; Xiguo also died. What about Cai Guo? The state of Chu has not destroyed the state of CAI. Keep it and guard the door for me.

Since then, the state of CAI has always followed the state of Chu and is regarded as the servant state of Chu. In order to eliminate the accomplices, we must attack CAI; In terms of geographical location, Cai is the gateway to Chu in today’s Shangcai, Henan Province. To attack Chu, we must first solve the problem of CAI state. One hundred and fifty years after Duke Huan of Qi attacked Chu, during the war between Wu and Chu, the Wu army was able to finally invade the Yingdu of Chu, which was also the first to pass through the state of CAI.

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