Why did senior Indian army officials suddenly mention “two-line operations”?

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Source: wechat official account: Bu Yidao has been authorized to reprint

Writing / huyidao

After a period of silence, the Indian media hyped the topic of China India border on the 27th and threw out two “strong materials”.

On the one hand, the Hindu daily published an article that day, according to the “intelligence” obtained by the Indian side, China has greatly upgraded its firepower and weapon systems within about 100 kilometers of the actual control line in the western region, and has also expanded the accommodation facilities of its troops.

At the same time, it is hyped that “the people’s Liberation Army has upgraded its weapons and equipment in the China India border area”, making excuses for India to further upgrade its weapons and equipment along the line of actual control.

On the other hand, general Vivek ram Chowdhury, chief of staff of the Indian air force, suddenly mentioned the concept of “two lines of operation” in an exclusive interview with the press trust of India.

Chowdhury claimed that the improvement of India’s military action plan and the enhancement of its capabilities, as well as relevant training, have always been aimed at “responding to a wide range of threats from either or both sides at the same time”.

Why does the Indian military hype the topic of China India border military at this time?


The Hindu Daily reported that within 100 kilometers of the actual control line in the western region, the Chinese army has greatly expanded its accommodation facilities, upgraded its long-range artillery and rocket systems, air defense systems, and expanded its runway and hardened hangar shelter facilities to deploy more fighters.

The report claims that this is part of some intelligence data. Since the confrontation between the Chinese and Indian troops in the eastern part of “Ladakh” more than two years ago, the PLA has carried out a number of major upgrades on the Chinese side.


In terms of details, Hindu Daily quoted an official source who asked not to be named as saying that before the confrontation begins in 2020, the Chinese Army’s camp in the western part of the line of actual control can accommodate 20000 soldiers. Now, it has been expanded to provide temporary accommodation for 120000 people.

The source also claimed that according to the so-called “intelligence” obtained by India, Chinese personnel have also established their own solar energy and small hydropower projects near the line of actual control. In this way, the winter maintenance capability of the Chinese border defense forces has been enhanced in many ways.

Moreover, the source added that these facilities are different from the model villages built by the Chinese side along the line of actual control.

The report also mentioned that at the beginning of the confrontation in 2020, four divisions under the Xinjiang Military Region of the people’s Liberation Army were deployed in the region in turn. “Now, all these divisions have been transformed into the combined arms Brigade (CAB), and the equipment upgrade is almost complete.”.

In terms of weapon upgrading, the Indian source said that an Armored Regiment under one of the PLA divisions had been equipped with type 15 third-generation modern light tanks to replace the active ztz-88 main battle tanks. However, the 96a main battle tank and other equipment deployed by some units remained unchanged.

Moreover, the technical performance has also been upgraded. Indian sources said that the PLA troops have also improved the fire control system of these tanks.

Similarly, among the PLA troops deployed at the border, mechanized brigade wheeled armored personnel carriers have also been upgraded. Indian intelligence personnel found that the latest is the ztl-11 armored personnel carrier. Since the new equipment is more advantageous when deployed in highlands and mountains above 15000 feet, the Indian army also issued a tender contract to purchase light tanks.

In terms of air defense firepower, Indian sources quoted intelligence reports that the air defense and Air Force bases of the people’s Liberation Army near the areas along the line of actual control have also been upgraded, including hangar reinforcement and runway extension. Another Indian official said that the Chinese army has increased helicopter airports in some places.

Indian media also highlighted that the PLA has upgraded its weapons and equipment in border areas, focusing on enhancing firepower, improving strike range and having better mobility.

For example, in the aspect of artillery upgrading, the towed howitzer was gradually replaced by a vehicle mounted howitzer with a range of about 50 km. Indian military officials said the upgrade provided better mobility, shorter strike preparation time and a higher degree of automation.

In addition, the Indian side also highlighted that the PLA seems to have deployed the phl-3 multi barrel rocket launch system (MRLs) in the border areas, with a strike range of more than 100 kilometers, which has better targeting capability than the earlier version. This has put great pressure on the Indian border forces.

In terms of air defense missiles, the PLA has realized the matching of hq-17 surface to air missiles with long-range HQ-9 air defense missiles. The HQ-9 is considered to have a range of about 100 to 300 kilometers. It has brought challenges to India’s aircraft activities in border areas.


In addition, the Hindu also reported earlier that the Chinese forces have increased the use of UAVs in the area along the line of actual control and formed a UAV network, which is used to perform various tasks, including intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR), and even logistics support.


By means of “informants” and “military intelligence”, the Indian media exaggerate the upgrading of weapons and equipment of the Chinese forces in the border areas. In fact, the larger goal is not only to attract attention and obtain greater traffic, but also to help the Indian military share a larger “funding cake” at home, so that the Indian army has more funds to purchase and develop new weapons.

For example, Indian media also mentioned that since the confrontation, India has also significantly expanded its military capabilities and enhanced its infrastructure on the Indian side of the line of actual control. At the same time, India has also deployed “blizzard” multiple rocket launchers and “Brahmos” land attack cruise missile system in some areas close to the actual control line.

In an exclusive interview with the press trust of India, Gen. ramchowdhury, chief of staff of the Indian air force, also confidently mentioned that India is capable of completing “two front operations”.


Indian local media reported on the 27th that Chowdhury said that India should understand the unstable situation on its western and northern borders as a “double line” emergency and make corresponding preparations for it. The so-called “double track” emergencies refer to the “challenges brought about by the possible sudden joint efforts of China and Pakistan to launch military threats”.

Chowdhury said that India may be attacked in all fields in the future. From military confrontation to information manipulation and blockade, India’s security theory and capability must cater to this possibility.

He said, “we face different adversaries on the western and northern borders, both in nature and quantity. As a national defense force, we have always been vigilant to deal with any threat and defend national sovereignty at all costs.”

This is not the first time that a senior Indian military official mentioned “two front operations”. Previously, several senior military officials, including India’s first defense chief of staff lavat and former army chief of staff narawan, had expressed concern about possible coordinated threats on the northern and Western fronts.

According to the latest reports in Indian media, this is the first time that a senior commander in active service has called for a detailed plan to deal with the threat of “two front operations”. “There is a need to prepare for an event based short-term operation, which requires rapid planning, rapid deployment of assets and rapid action,” Chowdhury said

He claimed that the Indian air force is carrying out complex work in all these aspects to build a reliable force to respond to all emergencies.

When asked by the media about the rapid deployment of the people’s Liberation Army along the actual control line in the so-called “Ladakh” area, as well as the upgrading of air force equipment and facilities, Chowdhury declared that “the Indian air force can prepare in a very short time and provide the required strikes”.

He believes that the formulation of the Indian army’s action plan, capability upgrading and corresponding training can meet the needs of simultaneous operations from one or two fronts.

Chowdhury disclosed that the infrastructure of the second French Rafale Fighter Squadron and the subsequent operation and maintenance facilities have also been completed in the eastern section, while the existing forward landing sites (algs) in the Northeast have been upgraded. The Indian air force can provide strikes in a very short time.


Regarding China’s expansion of military infrastructure along the line of actual control, including air defense weapons and related equipment, Chowdhury said that the Indian Air Force will continue to develop the PLA’s cross-border capabilities and take actions to mitigate any threat that such development may pose.

“I’m glad to see that our infrastructure has been upgraded quickly to meet our new deployment and operational requirements,” Chowdhury said. He added that, for example, the Chinook helicopters deployed by the Indian Air Force have begun to be deployed in one of the two designated bases in the East, and the infrastructure construction of the second base is nearing completion.

Of course, many outsiders know how much “moisture” there is in the Indian military’s statement.

For example, India has always attached great importance to France’s Rafale fighter. Indian media and some analysts even believe that India’s Rafale fighter can resist China’s fifth generation j-20 stealth fighter.


Qian Feng, director of the research department of the National Strategic Research Institute of Tsinghua University, said that as the top general of the Indian air force, Chowdhury’s statement represented the views and positions of the Indian military in the theory of “two lines of operation”.

Moreover, the press trust of India is not only the largest news agency in India, but also the only one with semi official background. It has a certain authority. Therefore, from this interview, the concept of “two lines of operation” has now become the operational concept of the Indian military, especially the air force.

Qian Feng believes that Chowdhury’s reference to “two lines of operation” at this time has two meanings:

First of all, India can continue to create a positive image of the Indian army, including the air force, and the army is still a strong defender of national security. So as to try to alleviate and dispel the various doubts of the people recently because they are dissatisfied with the conscription reform and doubt that the military reform may weaken national security.


Secondly, the current international security environment is more complicated due to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and India’s military reform continues to advance. Under this background, the air force’s unique capabilities in modern operations are publicized in a high-profile manner, in order to give the air force more cake from the competition among the three services, so as to obtain more resources and support.

Chowdhury’s statement also explained to the international community the construction objectives, development priorities and direction of the Indian Air Force in the future, and conveyed the determination of the Indian army to continuously strengthen the so-called “deterrence” in response to the two traditional security opponents of China and Pakistan.

An anonymous military expert said that the depiction of the upgrading of weapons and equipment and the construction of relevant infrastructure by the Hindu newspaper on the Chinese troops along the China India border were the usual means and methods used by the Indian media in the past, and we have become accustomed to them.

The Chinese military has advantages over India in this respect, but we have no intention of provoking new frictions. China has been very restrained. India should be able to feel this. Because in terms of our own weapon design and production capacity, we have strong manufacturing capacity in basically all major weapons and equipment, and we produce them completely independently.

However, India has not been able to do so. India also needs to purchase many important weapons and equipment from abroad. However, at present, the production and manufacturing efficiency in western countries is not high, so India depends on others’ faces. In this regard, India is at a disadvantage compared with China. We adjust our manufacturing plans based on our own needs.

The production speed is also one of the best in the world.

We also noted that on June 22, Chinese State Councilor and foreign minister Wangyi met with the new Indian Ambassador to China Luo Guodong. Wangyi expressed that the common interests between China and India far outweigh their differences, and they should achieve each other rather than consume each other.

China and India are two ancient oriental civilizations, two emerging developing countries and two neighboring countries. China India relations have attracted worldwide attention and the attention of the two peoples. It is related to the well-being of the 2.8 billion people of the two countries and whether the world can truly achieve justice, equality and harmony. China and India should strengthen cooperation rather than mutual prevention, and enhance trust rather than mutual suspicion.


Wangyi said that the two sides should walk in the same direction, promote China India relations to maintain a warming momentum, return to the track of stable and healthy development at an early date, work together to address various global challenges, and safeguard the common interests of China and India and the vast number of developing countries. Foreign Minister Su Jiesheng recently publicly expressed his disapproval of the “Eurocentrism” and did not want external forces to interfere in China India relations, reflecting India’s tradition of independence.

Therefore, we still hope that India can do more things conducive to the recovery and development of China India relations. At a time when the current international situation is volatile, it is even more necessary for the two major countries to maintain stable relations.

Thank you guoyuandan for your help in this article

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