Why did Xiangyu commit suicide in Wujiang? He put people’s livelihood above the struggle for kingship

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In ancient China, due to the change of dynasties, the country changed its flag, resulting in years of war and famine. Cao Cao’s “bones are exposed in the wild, and there is no crowing of chickens for thousands of miles” is not a literary fiction. It’s the same with changing dynasties, and it’s the same with fighting in the same room. Uncle and nephew Zhu Ming also performed a historical tragedy of “green phosphorous and white bones, frightening the mind”.

Not long ago, the author read a collection of poems on history. In the section of “the wind and cloud of Chu and Han Dynasties”, there were many people who praised Xiang Yu, and even Yu Ji and Wu zhuima became the objects of chanting. There were few words involving the people, only one poem and one song by Han Yu and Zhang Kejiu. “The world has been suffering for a long time”, Xiangyu, Liu Bangbu, Chen Sheng and Wu Guang rose up after the overthrow of the tyranny, and should have recuperated with the people. However, due to the fierce competition for power and profit among various powers, people in Qin and Han Dynasties were “sad, and the people lost their lives” (the sound of selling flowers? Nostalgia). Chu and Han are in a stalemate, and the outcome is still pending. Young people are tired of the military, and the old and weak are tired of “supporting the front”. Xiangyu said to Liu Bang, “if the Huns in the world are several years old, I would like to challenge the king of the Han Dynasty to decide whether they are male or female, instead of suffering from the people in the world, father and son.” The world has been plagued by years of war because of the two of us. It would be better to fight it out so as not to implicate the common people. Xiangyu’s proposal was rejected by Liu Bang: “I would rather fight my wits than my strength.” (historical records? Xiangyu Benji) this is the famous “Guangwu stream dialogue”. Whether Xiangyu is a hero in troubled times or a leader of the uprising, it is commendable that he can take the idea of “not suffering the people of the world”. This kind of consciousness was not a flash in the pan. In the battle of Wujiang River, Xiang Yu could have crossed the river by boat to get rid of difficulties and even “make a comeback”. However, he resolutely chose to commit suicide. Whether Xiangyu was “ashamed of being the only child in the world” remains to be discussed, but after all, he did not adopt Wujiang TingChang’s proposal to establish a base in Jiangdong, which did not lead to a tragic situation of “gambling on heaven and earth” (Han Yu’s crossing the chasm), which is exactly his tragedy.

Xiangyu is not the last winner. His idea of putting people’s livelihood above the struggle for kingship has no chance to practice. In fact, in ancient sages, the origin of this thought is much older. There is a paragraph in Zhuangzi? Let the king, which can better explain the problem. The father of Tai Wang Yu, who lives in Jiadi, was attacked by the Di people. The people of Di didn’t accept the donation. Their purpose was to occupy the land. My father said, “I can’t bear to live with my brother and kill his brother. I can’t bear to live with my father and kill my son. All my sons have to live! I’m different from my minister and my minister! And I don’t care about what I use and what I do.” So he took the whip and left the ground. People flocked to follow him and established a new country under Qishan.

There are two points worth paying attention to in this story. The first is “to be my subject and to be Di’s subject, to be different” (what is the difference between being my subject and being Di’s subject). This is easy to understand. In ancient China, there was no concept of a nation-state. Feudal emperors were like riding lanterns on the historical stage. Just as Zhang yanghao, a yuanist, said, “the Tang family only rose and the Sui family failed, and the state of the world has changed like a cloud” (hillside sheep? Xianyang reminiscing about the past), “up to now, there has been a lingering hatred and confusion among the Zhou, Qi, Qin, Han and Chu states.” (hillside sheep? Lishan nostalgia) the surname of the emperor in the capital may be Liuli Zhaozhu; The flag flag of the imperial city may also be the barbarian Qiang Di, but the fate of the people is no different. In this way, there is nothing wrong with Mr. Chen’s so-called “being different for my minister and for di Renchen”. Therefore, he would persuade the people to “live with their sons” (you can all make do with Di people). In the era of feudal imperial power, the “subjects” had no right to choose between “for my subjects” or “for di Renchen”. In order to get rid of the historical destiny that people suffer no matter whether they rise or fall, the people have to decide their own destiny and choose their own social managers. This is also a broad road of political civilization in this world.

The second is “not to use the land to feed the people” (do not harm the people they feed because of the land they feed). The ideological value of this point is more advanced. Land is the basis for people’s survival. It should not harm the people because of land. The throne and political power are only a part of “kingship”, a superstructure supported by the people’s fat and cream (taxes), and should not harm the interests of the people for the sake of the continuation of “kingship”. At that time, there was no modern concept of “human rights”. Chuang Tzu just called his father “a person who can respect life” (a person who can respect life). His father’s “being able to respect life” and Xiang Yu’s “not suffering people all over the world” also focus on the lives and livelihoods of the people. In the concept of feudal emperors, the logic is obviously reversed that “the land under heaven is the king’s land”, and the people are fed by the rulers. Even so, in his father’s opinion, when “kingship” endangers “human rights”, the “kingship” should give way to “human rights”, rather than sacrifice “human rights” for “kingship”. This shows that in his father’s subconscious, “human rights” are higher than “kingship”.

Today, the “kingship” in most countries has long been replaced, and it is natural that “human rights” are higher than “kingship”. However, such a principle is easier said than implemented. The events in North Africa and the Middle East in 2011 have repeatedly shown that some rulers do not hesitate to put the people of the country in a pool of blood in order to continue the ruling regime that has been in power for decades; Some feudal oligarchs in East Asia took people hostage in order to continue the blood Yin of their families. In their eyes, “human rights” are still the fish and meat of “royal power”. What a sad day!

During the negotiations between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China in Chongqing, the pursuit of democratic politics and peaceful nation building became a strong voice of the people at that time. Mr. Huang Qisheng wrote a poem: “democracy is like a boat, civil rights are like water, and the rising water makes Xi worry that the boat is not high?” It reflects this background. The last sentence of the word is: “set the schedule, look at Juying’s father, and come to court on horseback.” It can be seen that, just like his father’s residence, only by implementing democratic politics will he be supported by the people.

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