Xiao He became a marquis by bribery? In those years, Liu Bang was given an extra 200 yuan as a gift

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At the beginning of Liu Bang’s reign, in addition to seven “Princes” with different surnames, more than 130 meritorious men were successively granted “Princes”. In the Han Dynasty, it was mainly the two levels of princes, kings and princes. In the early Han Dynasty, the difference between these two levels was great. First, the territory of the kingdom “more than a hundred cities, less than thirty or forty counties”; These seven kingdoms together account for more than half of the “world”. But few Marquis are bigger than a county. Liu bangxu was the second most meritorious official, led by Xiao He, who only ate 8000 households in the city when he was first granted the marquis; Later, Liu Bang remembered that when he worked in Xianyang as a corvee in the past, Xiao He gave him more than two hundred yuan and sealed up another two thousand households; Later, Xiao He became the prime minister and sealed another 5000 households; A total of only 15000 households. In the end of the Han Dynasty, there were rarely more than 40000 marquees. Second, the princes not only enjoyed their own taxes and corvee, but also held most of their own political power. The official system of the kingdom is the same as that of the central government. The official system of the Han Dynasty largely copied that of the Qin Dynasty. There are prime ministers in the central government and also in the kingdom; There is a censor doctor in the central government, as well as in the kingdom; There are Taiwei in the center and lieutenant in the kingdom. The officials of the Kingdom, except the prime minister, were appointed and removed by the princes and kings. However, in this “country”, the Marquis only enjoy the rent and corvee of a certain number of households. For example, if a marquis eats 5000 households, and the number of households in the country exceeds this number, the rent and tax of the remaining households will still belong to the central government and have no ruling power. Some of them live in Chang’an, some are officials elsewhere, and most of them are not in their own country. The “Xiang” of the Hou state is actually the local officials sent by the central government, and the county magistrate or county head Xiang in the non feudal areas, such as the county magistrate with more than 10000 households in the Han Dynasty, and the county magistrate with less than 10000 households. He collected taxes for the princes, but he did not belong to the princes. Among the feudal monarchs, the imperial court has to guard against only the princes, who are politically insignificant.

At first, the princes and kings had different surnames. The existence of princes with different surnames was not what Liu Bang wanted. However, before the founding of the new dynasty, they had already been based as kings. If Liu Bang refused to recognize their established status after he destroyed the item, they would unite under self danger and resist Liu Bang. It is unknown whether Liu Bang could become an emperor. So when Liu Bang asked the princes and ministers why he was successful, someone answered:

Your majesty is slow and insulting, and Xiang Yuren loves her. However, your majesty made people attack cities and territories, and those who were demoted would benefit with the world because they were given. Xiang Yu envies the virtuous and envies the capable. Those who have made meritorious contributions harm them, while those who have made meritorious contributions doubt them. He defeats others without making meritorious contributions, and gains land without benefiting others. Therefore, he loses the world.

However, before Liu Bang became emperor, he was able to “share the benefits with the world”; Not after being emperor. He can’t catch all the remaining separatist forces before he sits firmly on the throne; After the throne has been firmly established, they can be broken one by one. All the kings he initially granted, except the king of Changsha, who had only 25000 households, were later settled by him. If Liu Bang intended to revive the pure Prefecture and county system of the previous dynasty, he could completely take the land of princes with different surnames back to the central government one after another. At this time, the main obstacle to the restoration of the pure county system seems to be psychological. Qin Xingchun’s Prefecture and county system died for 15 years, and Zhou Xingchun’s “feudal” system was enshrined for 800 years. This historical lesson made Liu Bang and his advisers recognize the “feudal” system as a matter of course. The “vassal king” with a different surname was gradually replaced by Liu Bang’s brother and nephew. Later, he vowed: “if it is not Liu’s family, the king will be attacked by the world.” However, the “feudal” system in the early Han Dynasty and the “feudal” system in the Zhou Dynasty, although the names are the same, are actually very different. In the Zhou Dynasty, both bangji and vassal states included countless small feudal monarchs who were both in power and landlords; But in the early Han Dynasty, bangji and vassal states had become counties. And later, the imperial court controlled the vassal state much more strictly: the military talisman of the vassal state was in the hands of the prime minister sent by the imperial court, and the princes could not send troops without his consent.

In the view of emperor Gao, the world of the Liu family should be much more stable than the Zhou Dynasty, which had different surnames and mixed titles. But the truth is not. Less than 20 years after his death, the control of the central government over the vassal Kingdoms has become a problem. During the first six years of Emperor Wen’s accession to the throne, the king of Jibei and the king of Huainan rebelled successively. Although they were immediately destroyed, the king of Wu, who owned more than 50 cities, showed signs of disobedience. He took in fugitives from the central government and other countries and used them as pawns; He also relied on his rich power to melt mountains for money and boil sea for salt to exempt domestic taxes in order to buy people’s hearts. It happened that the crown prince of Wu entered the court, gambled with the crown prince, the king of the future, quarreled, and was killed by the crown prince on the spot. Since then, the crown prince of Wu said that he was ill and did not go to the court. On the one hand, he stepped up to “accumulate money, repair military reform, and gather grain and food”. In the sixth year of Emperor Wen, the brilliant Luoyang teenager Jia Yi wrote the famous “public security policy” for the king Tai Fu of Liang Dynasty. He believed that current affairs “can be one for those who cry bitterly, one for those who cry bitterly, and two for those who cry bitterly in this book. According to Xia Xin’s” Jia Yi’s political affairs sparse examination and supplement “, it can be six for those who rest too long”. The “one who can cry bitterly” is the powerful and difficult control of the princes and kings. He metaphorically said, “the situation of the world is serious. One shin is as big as the waist, and one finger is as big as the thigh.” The medical prescription he prescribed was “all build princes with less power”, that is to say, divide the land of princes and kings to seal their brothers or descendants. As a result, the number of princes and kings increased, but their power decreased. Later, Emperor Wen divided Qi state into six and Huainan state into three, which was part of the realization of this policy. Before the division of Qi and Huainan, Chao Cuo, a native of Yingchuan, proposed a tougher way, that is, to reduce most of the land of the princes to the central government. Kuan Jen’s Emperor Wen ignored this proposal, but his son Jingdi immediately adopted it after he succeeded to the throne. When it came to the state of Wu, the king of Wu colluded with the four states of Jiaodong, Jiaoxi, Jinan and Yichuan, which were divided from Qi, Chu, Zhao and Wu, and raised troops against them. This was a great turnaround for the political system of the Han Dynasty. The central army put an end to the chaos within three months. Taking advantage of the remaining power of victory, King regained the power of appointment and removal of all officials of the vassal state to the imperial court. At the same time, he greatly reduced the officials of the vassal state and renamed its prime minister as prime minister. After this reform, although the princes and kings were granted the title of monarch, they were actually idle employees who ate salary; Although the vassal state was called a fief, it was actually a county directly under the central government. In the next 2000 years, the “feudal system” was mostly like this.

When Emperor Jing died and Emperor Wu succeeded to the throne, he went all the way to strengthen the weak. He vigorously promoted Jia Yi’s differentiation policy. Since then, the remaining economic privileges of the princes have also been greatly reduced, and their food cities are no more than a dozen cities at most. As far as the smallest Marquis, Emperor Wu refused to let go, and every time he took advantage of minor sins to abolish them. In the Han Dynasty, the emperor held a grand sacrifice in the ancestral temple in August, which was called “drinking Kui”. At that time, the princes would offer money to assist the sacrifice, which was called “Kui Jin”. In the reign of Emperor Wu, more than 100 princes lost their titles because of poor gold quality or insufficient weight.

Jingwu period was the period when the ruling power of the Han Dynasty was concentrated to the extreme, and it was also the period when the country’s prosperity developed to the extreme.

During the fifteen years of the Qin Dynasty, the unprecedented labor service and expeditions had exhausted the people’s wealth. After eight years of hard work, just counting the struggle between Chu and Han, there was “a big war of 70 and a small war of 40”, which was like gouging out Lei Huang’s body. This is not enough. Emperor Gaodi also decided that in the following year of Sanqin, there was a great famine in Guanzhong. The people ate each other and died most of them. When the world calms down, looking back on the former famous capital Dayi, most of them have already paid for haolai. Their registered permanent residence often goes to eight or nine years. Two years after emperor Gaodi ascended the throne, he walked through Quni and climbed the city to look at it. He praised the grandeur of the county very much. He thought that among the capitals he passed, only Luoyang could be compared with it. But when asked about the number of households, there were 30000 in Qin Dynasty, and only 5000 after the chaos. At this time, not only the general people had no reserves to speak of, but also some generals and ministers only took ox carts, and the emperor was unable to prepare a pure Sima.

Fortunately, in the next 60 or 70 years, most of the country enjoyed continuous peace, and most of the people in power were believers of “Huang Lao” and adhered to the policy of saving trouble and pacifying the people. After this long-term cultivation, the society has recovered from the Soviet Union and tends to be prosperous. In the early years of Emperor Wu’s accession to the throne, according to the observation of Sima Qian, a historian at the same time, “unless there is a flood or drought, the people will give enough to their families. All the houses are full, and the Treasury is full of surplus goods. The capital’s money is accumulated in tens of thousands, which is decayed and uncountable. The millet in Taicang, which is full of Chen Xiangyin, is exposed and accumulated outside, and is corrupt and inedible. There are horses in the streets and alleys of the common people, and there are flocks of horses between the paths”.

Centralization of political power and complete elimination of internal problems; The people are rich and the finance is not a problem; This is the time for great achievements. It happens that Emperor Wu is a promising leader.

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