Xu Wei, a hard-working Ming Dynasty scholar, has excellent calligraphy and painting works

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Xuwei, with the first word Wen Qing,

Because the examination article was too long, it was named “Wen Chang” and nicknamed as Ivy League lay.

Xu Wei was a rare all rounder in the Ming Dynasty. He made great achievements in poetry, calligraphy, painting, opera and military affairs. But his life was very unlucky, even desperate. In his childhood, Xu Wei was known as a child prodigy and never forgot his reading; At the age of 17, he took the rural examination. Because he deliberately wrote a long article in the examination, which was not in line with the routine, he failed in eight examinations, and even became frustrated; Later, he became an aide to Hu Zongxian. After Hu fell, he was persecuted repeatedly and had to commit suicide. Gradually, in people’s eyes, he became crazy. Xu Wei had three marriages in his life. The last time, he mistakenly killed his wife due to a manic attack and was imprisoned for seven years; He was released from prison at the age of 53. He was already poor and old. He made a living by selling paintings and calligraphy.

In his later years, Xu Wei was obsessed with painting and calligraphy, but because of his madness, he often painted with a pen and finished it at one go. Therefore, he created the painting style of “splash ink freehand brushwork school” in China, and his works were worshipped by later generations.

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Xu Wei’s ink lotus and daffodils manual ink paper edition

After knowing Xu Wei’s experience, we can see his contribution to the art of calligraphy and painting. Xu Wei is best at wild grass. His pen and ink are unbridled and magnificent. Yuan Hongdao’s collection of Zhonglang in the Ming Dynasty said: “Wen Changxi writes a book. His writing style is like a poem, and his beauty leaps out of the vigor. Above Wang Yayi and Wen Zhengzhong, regardless of the calligraphy spirit, he is the sage of the eight sincere methods, and the Xiake of the calligraphy forest.” Xu Wei gave himself the following evaluation: “my book comes first, poetry comes second, literature comes second, and painting comes second.”

Although painting was ranked last by Xu Wei, because of his deep calligraphy attainments, his brushwork with ups and downs contributed to the ingenious changes of painting art. As Zhang Dai, a writer in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, said: “today, I see all the paintings with green vines, which are strange and detached, and their vigorous beauty leaps out, which is slightly the same as the uniqueness of his calligraphy.” Xu Wei’s paintings had a great impact on the painting world of later generations. Zhu Da, the “eight mountain people”, learned a lot; Zheng Banqiao also directly shouted: “would like to be a lackey under the green rattan gate”; Qi Baishi wished he had been born 300 years earlier to sharpen his ink. This article mainly introduces Xu Wei’s calligraphy and painting works, which will be appreciated by readers.

“The painting of donkey reciting poems”

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It is now collected in the Palace Museum in Beijing. In the painting, Ivy branches are falling, and an old man riding a donkey under the tree passes slowly, as if singing a poem, leisurely and elegant. As an old man, Xu Wei only sketched out the image of a literati who was far away from the world with lines that seemed to exist as if they were nothing; The donkey, with only a few strokes, is in shape and spirit. In particular, the donkey’s pace is light and natural, as if it can hear the “cluttering cluttering” of its hooves. The branches and crayons are messy, with a sense of bleak autumn wind; Leaving blank makes the artistic conception of the picture distant. The whole painting method combines the four styles of truth, line, grass and Li, with vivid pen and ink and full of poetry.

Old Mr. Qi Baishi worshiped the painting of a donkey reciting poems. He had studied copying repeatedly before, but sighed that no matter how he drew it, it was not like it, especially the donkey hoof. It was very good and very difficult to draw! There is also a worship poem that says, “the ivy vine is a distant foe, and the fou old man had a different talent in those days. I would like Jiuquan to be the running dog, and the three families to turn around.”.

The painting of black grapes

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Now collected in the Palace Museum in Beijing, it is the representative work of Xu Wei’s freehand brushwork of ink painting. Xu Wei’s freehand brushwork on flowers and plants is like flying brush strokes and splashing ink. The ink grapes in the painting are strung on the branches and dyed with ink full of water. They are fresh and tender; The branches and vines are sketched in dry ink, and the grape leaves are splashed out in large pieces of ink. The style is relaxed and lively. The whole picture is bold and heroic, which is the “charm of seeking survival without seeking resemblance” advocated by Xu Wei.

From the poem inscribed in the painting of ink grapes, “half a lifetime of poverty has become an old man, and the independent study howls in the evening wind. The pearls on the bottom of the pen have nowhere to sell, so they are thrown into the wild vines at leisure.” It can be seen that he combines the grapes in the wild vines with the bitterness of his life, lamenting the helplessness and injustice of being buried. The grapes in his paintings are fully and freely combined with painting and calligraphy, showing wanton beauty and vitality. The lower seal is “Xiang Guan Qi” with the seal of Zhu Wenfang, and there are many other seals of Qing Dynasty, such as chenxilian and lizuoxian.

The painting of peony

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Now it is collected in Shanghai Museum. Peony is one of his favorite flowers. The whole painting of peony is only splashed with ink. Both flower heads and leaves are dotted with large amounts. Branches, stems and leaf veins are drawn with lines. The pen and ink are bold and full of charm.

The traditional peony is full and magnificent, while Xu Wei’s painting of bamboo and peony is really a painter to express his inner feelings. The peonies in his works are painted in ink and water. The purpose is to endow the peonies with elegant and refined style and charm, and to express the sadness of his noble character and talent. He once wrote in his painting ink peony: “peony is a rich and noble flower, and its main color is dazzling. Therefore, people in the past used to be good at painting with hooks and dyes. Today, ink splashing is used as it. Although there is a business, it is not the true face of this flower. The rest of us are hard to live. Our nature is as good as plum, bamboo, bamboo, and ox. it is as glorious and rich as a horse, a horse, a cow and a Buddha.” There is also a poem titled “ink peony”: “in the fifty-eight years of poverty and lowliness, why did you miss Luoyang spring? Otherwise, how could there be less rouge, and the rich flowers would write ink into God.”

Self question of this sheet: “On April 9, uncle Xiao drank wine in the newly restored Lanting. When Mr. Fei showed his father to ziqianshan, brother Li followed his father to zijianyang and wrote some works. I miangou wrote a poem. The book is like a son. His life is thousands of miles away, and the wine is drunk nine times. The horse can’t get out of the valley, and the bird’s shadow has repeatedly crossed the cup. The water sharing is adjacent to the seal meeting, and the twin pearl bright moon foetus. At present, when he is cultivating the earth, he can see the eternal harmony. He rinses the Wei River in the Tianchi. The lead building is connected from end to end, and there is a water sharing level, so the neck couplet is cloud. ‚ÄĚSeal: “Wen Chang”, “Tianchi Shuxian” and “Qingteng Taoist”. Seal for collection: “susboan collection” and “seal for appreciation of zhengqizhai”.

“Bamboo and stone Narcissus painting scroll”

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It is now stored in Tianjin Museum. Xu Wei loves bamboo. The courtyard of the Qingteng bookstore where he lives is planted with Qingteng, banana and bamboo. In this painting, a large amount of wet ink is used to touch the stone, and the double hooks are used to write the flowers and leaves of Narcissus between the ink color gaps of the stone. Light ink is used to draw bamboo, and the ink color is dripping and sound. The bamboo leaves are drooping and affectionate, noble and refreshing, just like a person, with noble character.

Xu Wei painted a large number of bamboos throughout his life, including wind bamboo, rain bamboo, snow bamboo, inverted bamboo, bamboo shoots, blue bamboo, etc. his strokes were bold but not wild. His leaves and poles were sprinkled with light ink and glue alum, producing an excellent halo effect. The inscriptions in the painting, using the brush to ease the atmosphere, reflect his profound skill in both poetry, calligraphy and painting.

“The painting of yellow armour”

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It is now stored in the Palace Museum in Taipei. In the painting, there are two lotus leaves, one opposite and one positive, one large and one small, one far and one near; Under the leaves, a crab crawls on the ground, as if crawling, full of movement; The large white space in the middle shows autumn water. He painted lotus leaves with freehand brushwork and “daubed” them with great enthusiasm; Crabs are concise and interesting with a few strokes. The whole picture is concise, fresh and ingenious. The comments on this yellow turtle map agreed that it was a satire on those “ignorant and unskilled” people who “rely on relationships” and “top the list”, and “crab” refers to such people.

Another major feature of Xu Wei’s painting method of yellow tortoise shell is that an appropriate amount of glue is added to the ink. When painting on raw rice paper, it can avoid the diffusion of ink and easy to control the halo of ink. This technique is the original creation of Xu Wei’s freehand brushwork. Moreover, the painting art he advocated focuses on self-expression and the expression of the painter’s soul, which is also the symbol of the development of literati painting to the advanced stage.

Xu Wei’s cursive script

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Xu Wei’s cursive poem axis, China art collection.

Interpretation: there are unreal flowers of knowledge, practicing endless waves, in an instant.

Sit down and see polo. Tianchi Wei River

Xu Wei is very fond of his wild grass. He writes boldly and boldly. His pen and ink are unrestrained. He acts at will. The paper is full of mess, which is difficult for ordinary people to understand. However, he once said in the book titled from a branch of the book: “a high book does not enter the eyes of the common people, and those who enter the eyes of the common people are not high books. However, this statement can also be compared with those who know, and it is difficult to talk with the common people.” His brushwork twists and turns, is uninhibited and unrestrained, and is also venting his inner depression, helplessness and struggle.

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? Xu Wei’s cursive seven rhythm poem axis, collected by the Palace Museum in Beijing

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? Xu Wei’s cursive calligraphy Du Fu Huaixi Guo thatched cottage poem scroll collected by Shanghai Museum

END

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