Yu Xu, a famous general of the Eastern Han Dynasty, retreated from the enemy by “increasing the kitchen”: 3000 people scared off the Qiang Army

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Yu Xu, a famous general of the Eastern Han Dynasty, was born in Wuping of the state of Chen (now the northwest of Luyi, Henan). At the time of emperor an, he was the head of Chaoge (now the southwest of Tangyin, Henan Province) and later the prefect of Wudu. During the reign of Emperor Shun, the official and the Minister of the imperial court were shooting at each other.

Yu Xu’s grandfather, Yu Jing, served as a county warden for a long time, enforcing the law and solving cases, being fair and tolerant. In the winter months, when he reported the case to the police, he often cried and wept. He once said to people, “the East China Sea is the inner gate of Yu Gong, and his son decides to die as the prime minister. I have been imprisoned for 60 years. Although it is not as good as Yu Gong, it is almost commonplace! Why don’t your descendants be evil for nine Qing” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty)? So he asked Yu Xu to use the word “rise to Qing”.

At the age of twelve, Yu Xu was able to learn the book of ministers. In his early years, he lost his father and took care of his grandmother. The county recommended him as Shun sun. After meeting him, chenguoguo also thought he was a rare talent and wanted to appoint him as an official. Yu Xu refused and said, “if my grandmother is 90 years old, I will not support her” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty). The state minister gave up. Later, Yu Xu’s grandmother died, and Yu Xu expired his filial piety service. He was called up to serve as a doctor in the Taiwei lixiu mansion.

In the fourth year of the reign of emperor Yong of Han’an (110th year), the Qiang people started to attack and occupy Liangzhou. Deng Jia, a senior general, thought that the military expenditure was too much to take into account. He wanted to abandon Liangzhou and concentrate on protecting the north. So he summoned the Minister for deliberation. Deng Gu said, “for example, if a garment is defeated, it will be finished if the damaged one complements the damaged one. Otherwise, there will be no protection for the two” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty). Those present at the meeting also agreed with him.

After Yu Xuwen, Say to Li Xiu: “I heard that the public Secretary had decided to abandon Liangzhou. He wanted to be foolish, but I didn’t find it convenient. The first emperor developed the word” Earth “. After toiling, he decided. Now he is afraid to give tips, but he abandoned it. Since Liangzhou was abandoned, that is to say, the three auxiliaries are used as a fortress; if the three auxiliaries are used as fortresses, the garden and mausoleum are alone. This can’t be even worse. He said: &\8217; the generals of Guanxi and the prime ministers of Guandong. &\8217; seeing that he has learned to be strong and brave, he has surpassed other prefectures. Today, Qiang Hu dare not enter the three auxiliaries, and for the harm of his insiders, take Liangzhou as an example.In the future. As a result, the natives are sharp and sharp, and those who do not have the heart to turn back belong to the Han Dynasty. If he abandons his territory and resettles his people, he will have different aspirations. If you make the heroes gather and sweep to the East, you may not be able to be the emperor, even though you are a soldier and a grand duke is a general. The arguer said that there was still something to be done with mending clothes, and he said that he was afraid that his gangrene, food and prostitution would be limitless. It is not a plan to abandon it. “

Li Xiu thought he was right, and said, “I don’t think so. The words of the micro Zi have almost ruined state affairs. But what should be done?”

Yu Xu said, “the cold land is disturbed, the human relations are uneasy, and the fear of theft and death has changed very much. It is really appropriate to order the four prefectures and nine ministers to set up several people in each state. Except for being redundant officials, the eldest sons of their shepherds and guardians are urged to be strict, to answer their hard work, to be restrained internally, and to prevent their evil schemes” (later Han Dynasty, biographies of Yu Xu).

According to the proposal, lixiu convened the four prefectures for consultation, arranged arrangements, and appointed Xizhou Haoqiang as an official, and appointed the children of the chief official as Lang, as a sign of appeasement.

However, Yu Xu’s suggestion offended brother Deng Jia, who wanted to slander Yu Xu. It happened that several thousand people, including Ning Qi of Chaoge (today’s Qi county), killed the officials and gathered for years. The state and county could not be pacified. Therefore, the brothers Deng Jia recommended Yu Xu to be the head of the song. Yu Xu’s old friends came to offer their condolences, and they all said, “why should we lose the morning song?” Yu Xu replied with a smile, “I don’t want to change my mind. I don’t want to take refuge. I’m also a minister. If I don’t encounter complicated problems, why do I use other sharp weapons” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty)?

As soon as Yu Yu took office, he paid a visit to Ma Ling, Hanoi’s prefect. Ma Ling sympathized with him: “if you are a gentleman or a Confucian, you should seek Mo’s temple, but you are singing evil songs in the morning?” Yu Xu replied, “on the day of the first extermination, scholars and bureaucrats all paid tribute to him. He knew that he was incompetent. The Chaoge, the suburb of Han and Wei, carried his back to Taihang, faced the Yellow River, and went to aocang for a hundred miles (one of the ancient national granaries, which is located in the Wushan mountain in Beiguang, Zhengzhou, Henan Province today) And thousands of people in Qinghai and Hebei are in exile. The thief doesn’t know how to open the warehouse, rob the Treasury, defend the city, and cut off the right arm of the world. This is not enough to worry about. Today, it is difficult to compete with the new prosperity. Soldiers don’t care about their power. They are willing to forgive their leave and bridle their policies. They don’t want to be confined and estranged “(biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty).

After taking office, Yu Xu set up three levels to recruit strong men: those who could fight and rob were the first, those who had committed wounding and stealing were the second, and those who were idle and didn’t care about their family business were the third. He ordered the officials to recommend such people and not to hide them. In just a few days, more than 100 people were recruited. Yu Xu hosted a banquet for them, announced that they would forgive their past sins, and sent them to join the ranks of the rebels to lure them into looting, while Yu Xu set up an ambush in advance to wait for the killing, using this method to kill hundreds of rebels.

Yu Xu also sent poor people who could sew to work as servants in the rebel ranks. When sewing clothes for them, they secretly sewed colorful threads on the lapels as a secret mark. In this way, as soon as the rebels entered the market, the guards could arrest them according to the secret mark. The rebels did not know where they were. They thought that Yu Xu had a God to help them. They were defeated and scattered one after another. Chaoge county was in Qingping. Yu Xu was also changed to county magistrate Huai.

In the second year of the Yuan Dynasty of the Eastern Han Dynasty (115 years), the Western Qiang attacked Wudu (which is now the west of Chengxian County, Gansu Province). At this time, it was empress dowager Deng who was in power to handle state affairs on behalf of the 13-year-old emperor Han’an. Seeing that the Qiang army was about to capture Wudu and was still heading south, Empress Dowager Deng, hearing Yu’s boast of having a general, ordered him to be the prefect of Wudu. And received him in the Jiade hall and gave him a very generous reward.

Yu Xu led 3000 troops to Wudu. The Qiang army had long known that Yu Xu was very powerful. They were very nervous when they heard that the Han Dynasty had sent him to fight against him. The leader of the Qiang people led thousands of troops to fortify the Gushan Valley (dashangguan) on the Chencang Road (now the east of Baoji, Shaanxi Province), trying to stop Yu Xu’s army’s attack here. Yu Xu immediately ordered his entourage to stop advancing, and announced that he had asked the imperial court for reinforcements, and would not go together until the reinforcements arrived. When Qiang people heard the news, they were puzzled by it, so they went to neighboring counties to rob. The few Qiang troops who stayed in Gugu also felt that Yu Xu would not attack for a while, so they relaxed their vigilance. Yu Xu took the opportunity to travel day and night for more than a hundred miles. And ordered the soldiers to dig two cooking pits each. In the future, each person will dig two more every day. Seeing the increase of cooking pits every day, the Qiang people thought that the Han Army had reinforcements, so they dared not approach them.

Some people were puzzled and asked Yu Xu, “Sun Bin reduced the number of Li and the king increased it. The art of war can only travel 30 Li a day to avoid Yu, but today it is 200 Li. Why?” Yu Xu replied, “there are many prisoners of war, but we have few soldiers. If you move slowly, you will be easy to reach. If you move quickly, you will be surprised. When the prisoners see that my prisoners are increasing, they will call the county soldiers to meet them. If you move quickly, you will be afraid to chase me. Sun Bin sees that I am weak, and I am strong now. There are different reasons for this” (later Han Dynasty, biographies of Yu Xu). Hearing Yu Xu’s words, the surrounding people nodded and said yes again and again. They admired Yu Xu for his good use of troops.

Yu Xu had less than 3000 soldiers in Wudu County, and was surrounded by tens of thousands of Qiang people in chiting (now the southwest of Chengxian County, Gansu Province) for dozens of days. Yu Xu ordered the officers and men to stick to it for ten days and beat back many attacks of the Qiang army, which greatly dampened the spirit of the Qiang army.

On the tenth day, the Qiang army began to attack again. Standing on the wall, Yu Xu looked around and found that the soldiers of the Qiang army were afraid of being shot by the strong bow and arrow of the Yu army. So Yu Xu ordered the soldiers not to fire strong crossbows but only small ones. Seeing that the arrow power of the Han army was too weak to reach them, the Qiang people thought there was no danger, so they concentrated their forces and stepped up their attack on the city. When the Qiang soldiers rushed to the bottom of the city, Yu Xu ordered 20 strong crossbows to shoot at one Qiang man at the same time, hitting every one. The Qiang people were shocked and quickly retreated. When Yu Xu saw the enemy retreat, he pursued them and killed many people.

In this battle, although the Qiang army was defeated and killed many people, it was found that only more than 2000 people were sent by the Yu army during the counter offensive. Therefore, it was thought that Yu Xu had few troops and was ready to attack chiting again. Yu Xu summarized the situation of the last battle and felt that his strength had been exposed. He estimated that the Qiang army might attack again. In order to confuse the Qiang army, he decided to give the Qiang army another false impression and create an illusion of the enemy. The next day, after the Qiang army was defeated and retreated to the camp, Yu Xu asked all the officers and men to line up, go out from the east gate, turn around, and then enter the city from the north gate. After entering the city, he changed his clothes and started from this gate to that gate. He constantly changed his clothes to confuse the Qiang people. I go in and out repeatedly every day. Seeing the different costumes of the Han Army, the Qiang people kept going in and out of the city gate. They could not guess how many people there were. They became more and more frightened and wavered. Yu Xu estimated that the Qiang people were going to withdraw, so he set up more than 500 people in the shallow water of the river outside the city on the only way for the enemy to retreat. As expected, the Qiang people fled, and the Han Army ambushed, intercepted and killed, and won a complete victory. The Qiang people were defeated and fled to Yizhou. Yu Xu inspected the terrain, built more than 180 camps, called back the exiled people and helped the poor. Wudu County gradually settled down.

Before Yu Xu arrived in Wudu County, the transportation roads were difficult and dangerous. There was no access to boats and cars. The donkey was used to carry the horse. The cost of renting people and animals was five times that of the materials transported. In view of this situation, Yu Xu personally led his officers and men to inspect the rivers in Wudu valley. He cut down trees and burned stones for tens of miles from Ju to Xiafen, and opened a boat path for tens of miles from Ju to Xiafen. Then, the shipping personnel are employed with the money originally used to rent people and animals. As a result, water transportation is convenient, saving more than 40 million yuan a year.

When Yu Xu first arrived in Wudu County, there were only 10000 households in the county. However, due to a series of measures taken by him to collect the surplus, the number of households soared to more than 40000 in less than two or three years. For a time, the salt and rice in Wudu County were plentiful and cheap, ten times higher than before. Later, Yu Xu was removed from his post because he made a small mistake.

In the first year of Yongjian (126) of Emperor Shun of Han Dynasty, Yu Xu succeeded Chen Chan as the school captain of Sili. A senior officer of the Sili school, one of the his duties is to supervise hundreds of the officials. After several months in office, Yu Xu successively dismissed Feng Shi, the Taifu, Liu Xi, the Taiwei, and often served Cheng Huang, Chen Bing, Meng Sheng, Li run, etc. during the impeachment, all officials were thrilled and looked at him one after another, thinking that he was too harsh. According to the above statement, Yu Xu was impeached in midsummer. He did not conform to the nature of nature, arrested and imprisoned a large number of innocent people, and harmed officials and the people. Yu Xu confessed and argued. He said, “the law forbids the vulgar, and the punisher’s bridle. Today, the state is called Ren county, and the county is called Ren county. It is even more distant. The people complain about poverty, and gourong is a good person, and all integrity is a fool. According to the minister, Zang’s crime is not one, and the two governments are afraid to be played by the minister, so they add the crime of falsehood. The minister will admonish the ear with the corpse after the death of Shi Yu Yu” (later Han Dynasty, biographies of Yu Xu). Emperor Shun knew that he was loyal and did not blame him. For this matter, he later removed Sikong taodun from his post.

In the middle of the time, he often attends to Zhang Fang’s power playing method. He is often entrusted by others, accepts bribes, and repeatedly fails to report. Yu Xu investigated and dealt with his case, but repeatedly wrote to his superiors, but they were detained and refused to reply. Yu Xu was so angry that he ordered people to tie him up and throw himself into Tingwei’s prison. The emperor xiao’an also wrote: “in the past, Emperor xiao’an appointed fan Feng, which led to the chaos of the political system and the near death of the country. Today, Zhang Fang has regained his power, and the disaster of the country will be serious. I can’t bear to be in the same Dynasty with Fang Fang, so I would like to hear from myself that I have no orders to attack Yang Zhen” (later Han Dynasty, biographies of Yu Xu). After Yu xubiao’s chapter was played, Zhang Fang explained in tears in front of the emperor. Yu Xu was dismissed as an apprentice and lost as a left school.

Zhang Fang refused to give up. He wanted to harm Yu Xu. Within two days, he sent people to try Yu Yu Yu four times. He was sure to kill him. The jailer advised Yu Xu to commit suicide to avoid abuse. Yu Xu refused. He said, “it is better to subdue the European sword to show the distance” (later Han Dynasty, biographies of Yu Xu).

Sun Cheng, the Marquis of Fuyang, and Zhang Xian, the Marquis of Zhu a, were eunuchs. When Emperor Shun was the crown prince, they were abolished. They helped him become the king. Now, knowing that Yu Xu’s loyalty had been punished, they played one after another and met the emperor face to face, Sun Cheng said, “when your majesty first started to make trouble with his ministers, he often fell ill on his treacherous ministers and knew that he had overthrown the country. Why was it not the former Emperor that he became the Emperor himself after he ascended the throne? Yu Xu, a lieutenant of Sili school, was loyal to his majesty and was even more detained. He often served Zhang fangzang with a clear conscience, which constituted loyalty and virtue. Now the guest star is guarding the Yulin forest, and there are treacherous ministers in his palace. It is advisable to take him back and send him to prison in case of heaven’s change. He issued an imperial edict to make a boast and also printed a false ribbon” (Biography of Yu Xu in the later Han Dynasty). At that time, Zhang Fang was standing behind the emperor. Sun Cheng scolded: “why don’t you go down to the palace, the treacherous minister Zhang Fang!” Zhang Fang had no choice but to move away from the east wing. Sun Cheng said, “Your Majesty is eager to withdraw his defense and has no order to ask for it from his mother” (biographies of Yu Xu in the later Han Dynasty). Emperor Shun asked the Minister for his views on the matter. The minister Jia Lang has always been friendly with Zhang Fang, proving Yu Xu’s guilt. Emperor Shun hesitated and said to sun Cheng, “come out, we will think about it” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of the later Han Dynasty). Yu Yu, Yu Xu’s son, and more than 100 students stopped the carriage of fan Hou Zhong, who was always waiting for Gao fan, kowtowed and bled, and complained about Chen’s grievances. Gao fan entered the court to make a statement, so Zhang Fang was exiled to the frontier fortress. Some of Jia Lang and other six people died and some were demoted. On the same day, Yu Xu was pardoned and released from prison. Sun Cheng wrote to Chen that Yu Yu Yu had made great contributions to the country, and his words were very incisive. Emperor Shun realized this and appointed him as Yi Lang. A few days later, he was promoted to the position of minister.

At that time, county and county officials and erqianshi officials allowed the criminal people to pay money for atonement, which was called “righteous money”. Nominally, it is reserved for the poor. In fact, the prefects and county officials use this method to amass people’s wealth and enrich their own pockets. Yu Xu wrote, “trust me to save money for the poor, but keep the order to collect money.” Xu Shangshu said, “since the first year, the poor people Zhang Yan and the senior officials have received more than one million yuan. Hungary and Hungary have never stopped punishing officials to tens of millions, while Sangong and the assassin have rarely played a role. Looking for Yongping and Zhang Hezhong, the prefectures and counties have lent money to the poor with pawn money. Sikong impeachs the case, and the prefectures and counties have all sat down to avoid dismissal. It is appropriate to follow the previous code and abolish the power system.” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty). The emperor issued Yu Xu’s memorials to the prefectures and prefectures, and made an imperial edict to cut off the responsibility of the chief officials. The measures of banishment, punishment and redemption were abolished.

At first Ningyang Lord Bo went to the imperial court to accuse the county magistrate of perverting the law. But sixorseven years later, the court never paid any attention. Lord Bo wrote angrily, “I am your son, and your majesty is your father. I have hundreds of rules, but I can’t see the province. How can I go to the north to complain?” When Emperor Shun saw this memorial, he was furious and showed it to the minister. The minister impeached Zhu Bo, saying that he was treacherous. Yu Xu refuted and said, “the lawsuit brought by the emperor’s master book is the resentment of the emperor and his father. It is the fault of the Department to fail to reach a hundred points. Stupid people are not enough to be punished.” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty). After hearing Yu Xu’s words, Emperor Shun only beat Zhu Bo, but did not deepen his responsibility. Yu Xu took this opportunity to say to the Shangshu, “if a villain has resentment, he has broken his hair and cut his muscles. He told me about it, but he didn’t do it. What is the righteousness of his subjects? What is your relationship with the chief official, and what is your hatred with the resentful people?” Those who heard it felt ashamed. Yu Xu wrote again that “Tai Lang has shown his position and his officials have reached a high level. Today, there are seven or eight prefectures, or no one in a state. It is appropriate to make everyone level, so as to be tired of the expectations of the world” (later Han Dynasty, biographies of Yu Xu). In addition, Yu Xu had some other memorial proposals, which were often adopted.

Yu Xu liked to impeach officials and ridicule the government. He did not support and tolerate them at all. He often disobeyed his anger and power and wanted his relatives. Therefore, he was condemned for trial nine times in his life and punished three times. However, he was upright and unyielding in his old age.

In the early years of Yonghe, Yu Xu was promoted to the position of minister. Later, he left for business. The imperial court knew that he was loyal and honest, and called him again, but unfortunately he died. On his deathbed, he said to his son Yu Gong, “I am honest with you and have no shame in doing what I have done. I regret that Chaoge has killed hundreds of thieves for a long time. How can there be no wrongdoer among them? Since then, I have been punished by heaven without adding a mouthful to my family for more than 20 years.” (biographies of Yu Xu in the book of later Han Dynasty). Yu Gong also had handsome talents, and the later officials were supreme and the party’s prefects were supreme.

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