Zhugeliang, a famous politician and strategist in the Three Kingdoms period (181-234 A.D.), had his life experience from Yangdu to Jingxiang, while Bashu, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hanzhong had almost set foot in most of China. In his later years, with the continuous use of troops in the northern expedition, he left his footprints in many places on the land of Longyuan.
In the six years from the sixth year of Jianxing of Shu (A.D. 228) to the twelfth year of Jianxing of Shu (A.D. 234), Zhugeliang, based in Hanzhong, successively carried out five northern expeditions on the Cao Wei Dynasty, that is, the so-called “six expeditions out of Qi Mountain”. Why are the five northern expeditions called “six expeditions out of Qishan”? That’s because later generations also included Zhugeliang’s treatment of the Wei army in Chenggu and Akasaka in the autumn of 230 A.D., the eighth year of Jianxing. Although the Wei army invaded the South several times, it returned halfway, and the two armies did not contact. Among the five times, the first, third and fourth northern expeditions were all carried out on the land of Longyuan. Therefore, Zhuge Kongming, who was regarded as a symbol of the wisdom of the Chinese nation by later generations, formed an indissoluble bond with Gansu.
The first time out of Qishan encountered the loss of the Street Pavilion
In the spring of the sixth year of Jianxing (AD 228), Zhugeliang raised his voice to take Gu (now Meixian County, Shaanxi Province) from xiegu Road (now the southwest of Meixian County, Shaanxi Province), and made Zhao Yun and Deng Zhi suspicious troops, according to Jigu (now Taibai County, Shaanxi Province), in order to attract the main force of the Wei army; And he himself led 60000 troops to attack Qishan, thus opening the prelude to the first northern expedition. Zhugeliang’s army was mighty and overwhelming all the way, and soon occupied the Qishan area in the area of Xihe and Lixian in Gansu Province, and camped in Qishan fort. Qishanbao is located in Qishan Township, 23 kilometers east of today’s Li county. It is an isolated peak of the Qishan mountains rising from hanyangchuan. It is steep on all sides. There is only a door to the west, and it can climb to the top of the mountain along a winding path. Halogen city (now Yanguan town) is 9 kilometers east of the fort, which is famous for its rich salt; The southwest of the fort is Chuankou village, which is a pass to and from Bashu. The top of the mountain is a flat open land, and there are caves in the southwest corner leading to the Bank of the West Han River, which can be used for the army to draw water. Therefore, Zhugeliang set up his Northern Expedition headquarters here to command the Shu army to continue its northward advance.
Due to Zhugeliang’s surprise, coupled with the neat army formation and strict orders, the Shu army attacked the city and pulled out the stronghold all the way smoothly. Nan’an (now northeast of Longxi County), Tianshui (east of Gangu County) and anding (south of Zhenyuan County) betrayed Wei and returned to Shu one after another. Zhugeliang received Jiang Wei again in Tianshui. For a time, Guanzhong was shocked by it, and the chaoye of Cao Wei was greatly afraid. At this point, Cao Rui, the emperor of Wei Ming, suddenly realized that he hurried from Luoyang to Chang’an and sent General Zhang Ying to lead his troops to resist the Shu army. At that time, Zhang Ying’s route of sending troops was generally along the eastern section of the South Road of the “Silk Road”, that is, from Chang’an to gushuan (now Longxian County, Shaanxi Province), dazhengguan (now the eastern slope of Donglong, Qingshui County, Gansu Province), across Longshan mountain, and now Longshan Town, Zhangchuan County, and Longcheng Town, Qin’an County, and then into Tianshui and Qishan. This is exactly the same line as Zhugeliang’s attack on Guanzhong. Therefore, the two armies of Shu and Wei launched a decisive battle in Jieting, a military town on this “Guanlong Avenue”.
Jieting is located in Longcheng Town, 45 kilometers northeast of Qin’an County, Gansu Province. From here, you can cross Longshan mountain to the East and enter Guanzhong, and you can descend into Tianshui and enter Sichuan to the south. Its strategic position is very important. At that time, the main battlefield of the battle of Jieting was between Longcheng town (ancient Lueyang) in today’s Qin’an County and Longshan Town (formerly Duanshan town) in Zhangjiachuan Hui Autonomous County, that is, today’s liankechuan area. It is located in the valley of Qingshui River (ancient Lueyang water), mostly Pingchuan, except that there is a mountain rising in the southeast, which cuts from east to west and is not connected with mountains. It is called Duanshan (now known as Longshan), and has become the forward position of Jieting defense.
During the war of Jieting, Zhugeliang took charge of Xicheng (that is, Xixian County, about between Qishan mountain and dabaozi mountain in the east of Li county), and ordered Ma Su to join the army as the pioneer, leading the army to fight with Zhang Ying in Jieting. However, due to Ma Su’s “violation of brightness and integrity”, “according to the resistance of Nanshan, there is no city under the control of the city” (it can be said that the Nanshan where Ma Su is based is a hundred hectares of Plateau in the southeast of Jieting, not a broken mountain, which can be said by people close to it), he was cut off by Zhang Ying as a result, and the Jieting was lost, “greatly broken”. Then, the Wei army marched into Nanan, Tianshui and anding, and the Shu army was in a dilemma. In this way, Zhugeliang’s military plan to seize Guanzhong unexpectedly was completely disrupted. As a last resort, he had to lead Jiang Wei and others to withdraw, and uproot more than a thousand families in West County and return them to Hanzhong. So far, the first Northern Expedition ended in failure. This is Zhugeliang’s first visit to Longyuan.
Zhugeliang’s strategy of “taking Longyou peacefully”, capturing Tianshui first, and then encircling Wei from behind, has been criticized by many people. The first one who disagreed was Wei Yan. At the Hanzhong military conference on the eve of the first northern expedition, he proposed that he should take 5000 people to cross the Ziwu Valley in ten days (one of the four Valley roads from Hanzhong to Guanzhong, and the other three are Baoxie Road, TangLuo Road, and the old road, Chencang Road), and then seize Chang’an. Zhugeliang thought that this plan was “dangerously dangerous” and did not adopt it. Therefore, today, many people believe that this is the loss of Zhugeliang’s strategy, is narrow-minded, jealous of the virtuous and capable, and thus comprehensively negates Zhugeliang. This statement is biased. In fact, Wei Yan’s plan of “rising at midnight in ten days” has obvious characteristics of “danger” in terms of enemy situation estimation, road travel, military grain supply, time arrangement and the difficulty of attacking and occupying Chang’an. Apart from other things, the Ziwu Valley is about 700 Li long, and it runs through the valley. You have to build plank roads while walking. You can’t go out in ten days. Two years later, Cao Zhen also invaded Hanzhong from Ziwu valley. As a result, it took more than a month to go halfway. The loss of the kiosk was due to the misuse of Ma Su, not a strategic mistake. Longyou is the belt and throat of Longyou, and Tianshui is the gateway of Guanzhong to Longyou. As long as you control the Tianshui area, you can attack Chang’an from behind at any time, so as to maintain the strategic initiative. Moreover, its road condition is far easier than that of the Valley Road on the eastern line, which is convenient for the operation and deployment of large forces, and can avoid the tight defense of the enemy on the eastern line. Therefore, Zhugeliang’s “an Cong Tan Road” and “Ping Qu Longyou” are completely correct.
It is said that the grain and grass heir died in Longyuan
Zhugeliang was hit militarily by the defeat of the first Qi Mountain, and zhugeqiao, the heir in charge of escorting grain and grass (that is, the second son of his brother zhugejin), died in the northern expedition, which made Zhugeliang feel the pain of losing relatives.
Zhugeqiao, originally named Zhongshen, was born in qua (now Danyang City, Jiangsu Province) in the ninth year of Jian’an (A.D. 204). His younger brother zhugeke was only one year old, and was the same year as Wei Zhao, the author of Wu Shu. Zhuge Qiao and his brother Zhuge Ke were both famous in the eastern Wu Dynasty when he was young. Critics thought that although Zhuge Qiao was not as talented as his brother, he had sex. At the beginning, Zhugeliang had no son, so he asked Zhuge Qiao to be his heir. After Zhuge Jin informed Sun Quan, he “sent Qiao to the west” (see “annals of the Three Kingdoms · Shu Shu · biography of Zhuge Liang”). As soon as Zhuge Qiao arrived in Xishu, Zhuge Liang took him as his legitimate son and changed his word to “Bosong”. In the fifth year of Jianxing of Shu (AD 227), he was worshipped as a prince in law and followed Zhugeliang in the northern expedition to Hanzhong. Zhugeliang sent his five or six hundred soldiers to carry grain and grass in the valley with the sons of the generals. For this reason, Zhugeliang also wrote to his brother zhugejin and said, “Qiao should return to Chengdu. Now all the generals and their children have to be transported, and they should think about the same honor and disgrace. Now Qiao Du has five or six hundred soldiers to spread to the valley with their children.” This is the time of “going out of Qishan”. Unfortunately, zhugeqiao died in the army in the sixth year of Jianxing (AD 228). He was only 25 years old and ended his life too early, so that people even blurred his image.
Zhugeliang once had two Epistles, Jie Zi Shu and you Jie Zi Shu, which were handed down to later generations. It is understandable that Zhugeliang earnestly admonished his 8-year-old son on this basis before his death. And “You Jie Zi Shu” focuses on drinking. The full text is: “the setting of husband’s wine is consistent with etiquette and emotion, suitable for body and nature, and the ceremony ends and retreats, which is also the most harmonious. The idea is not exhausted, and the guest is tired, so he can be drunk without confusion.” It means that the purpose of setting up wine banquets is to conform to etiquette and express feelings, so as to make body and mind comfortable and restore human nature. And the greatest harmony and happiness is when the etiquette is done and the guests withdraw. If the host’s affection is not exhausted and the guest is not tired, you can continue to drink until drunk, but not to the point of unconsciousness. This is really a wonderful word about “wine culture”. But before Zhugeliang died, it was a bit incredible that he talked about drinking with an 8-year-old child. Not to mention that the 8-year-old Zhuge Zhan may not have started drinking, even if he occasionally drinks and banquets, he can’t talk about setting up wine banquets, let alone “the idea is not exhausted, and the guests are tired”. Then, who will the book of you Jie Zi be written to? I think this should be written to Zhugeliang’s heir, zhugeqiao, the second son of Zhuge Jin.
From the fact that Zhuge Qiao had taken the word “Zhongshen” in the eastern Wu Dynasty, and changed the word “Bosong” after the Shu Dynasty, and was worshipped as a prince in law, and then participated in the northern expedition, when Zhuge Qiao became heir, he had passed the age of “weak crown” (that is, 20 years old), and should be regarded as an adult. In addition, he worked with the sons of the generals in Sichuan, and often ran in the valley, so whether for social entertainment or other needs, drinking is inevitable. This is the origin of Zhugeliang’s writing of “You Jie Zi Shu”.
At that time, drinking was still very popular in the officialdom in Sichuan. Therefore, Zhugeliang’s warning was not only out of love for his descendants, but also because of the drinking style of the children of the generals in Sichuan. Of course, Zhugeliang didn’t want to see the officials of the Shu Kingdom indulge in alcohol like the “Yin stubborn” in those days, so he couldn’t extricate himself. Therefore, out of consideration of consolidating the Western Shu regime, he talked about his views on alcohol to his heirs who had just entered Sichuan, and tried to influence the “high-level cadres’ children” at that time through zhugeqiao. It should be said that this is the far-reaching purpose of Zhugeliang’s writing “You Jie Zi Shu”.
It can be seen that the writing time of “You Jie Zi Shu” should actually be before “Jie Zi Shu”, and the names of the two should also be interchanged. About after the loss of the collection of Zhugeliang compiled by Chen Shou, although posterity got its lost articles, it was no longer clear about the background of its writing and the order of its articles, so it was just divided into titles according to the importance of its content. This is what we see today. However, it is gratifying that Zhuge Qiao’s participation in the Northern Expedition and walking through the Longyuan Valley made Zhuge Liang leave this famous article through the ages, and let future generations appreciate the highest realm of wine culture.
The rejuvenation of the Qilian Mountains is unfinished
Zhugeliang once again walked on Longyuan in the seventh year of Jianxing (AD 229), that is, during his third northern expedition. Previously, he went out of Sanguan (on dashanling in the southwest of Baoji City) in the winter of 228 A.D., surrounded Chencang (now the east of Baoji City), and held the second northern expedition. However, he had to return because of the exhaustion of grain. The route of the third northern expedition is today’s southern Gansu. Due to sufficient preparation, the result was a complete victory. This time, Zhugeliang first sent Chen Style to attack Wudu (now the west of Chengxian county) and Yinping (now the northwest of Jinwen county). When Guo Huai, the governor of Yongzhou in the Cao Wei Dynasty, wanted to lead the crowd to attack, Zhugeliang led the army to Jianwei (now the west of hehe), thus forcing Guo Huai to return. The Shu army completely occupied Wudu and Yinping counties, and owned Huixian, Chengxian, Kangxian, Xihe, Liangdang, Dangchang, Wudu, Wenxian, Zhouqu in Gansu Province, and Feng County in Shaanxi Province Lueyang and other vast areas. Later Lord Liu Chan was also very happy with this victory, and immediately issued an edict to restore Zhugeliang’s position as prime minister (after the battle of Jieting, Zhugeliang wrote “demote himself to the third class”).
In the spring of the ninth year of Jianxing (AD 231), Zhugeliang returned to Qishan and held the fourth northern expedition. This time, Zhugeliang used “wooden cattle” (a handy unicycle) to transport military grain. In the first battle, he defeated Guo Huai and Fei Yao, the Wei troops who saved Qi Mountain in the west, and took the opportunity to cut the cooked wheat in Lucheng. The state of Wei sent Sima Yi to lead the army to fight. Zhugeliang and Sima Yi met in the east of Shang (today’s Qinzhou District of Shuishi). However, the Wei army gathered troops in danger, and the Shu army could not fight for a long time. Therefore, Zhugeliang led troops to protect the Qi Mountain. Sima Yi originally refused to fight. Later, because his subordinates laughed at him for “fearing Shu like a tiger”, he led his army to take the Middle Road (chiyugou to Tianshui town) to light up, and ordered Zhang Jia to chase the Shu army to Mumen. The wooden gate is located in the wooden gate village of Mudan Township in the southwest of Qinzhou District of Shuishi today (first, in luojiabao village, Yanguan Town, Li county). Its land is sandwiched between two mountains and an empty valley. It is the only way from Lueyang to Qishan, so it is also called “wooden gate road”. The road is about 500 meters long and 50 meters wide, and the terrain is very dangerous. When Zhugeliang retreated, an ambush was buried earlier than the east mountain of Mumen. When Zhang Ying chased him, thousands of arrows were fired at once. “The arrow hit his right knee”, so he shot Zhang Ying. At the same time, Shu generals Wei Yan, Gao Xiang and Wu ban also defeated the Wei army in the Middle Road, forcing Sima Yi to remain.
During the northern expedition, both Wei armies were defeated, but Zhugeliang finally returned to Hanzhong. It turned out that when Zhu Geliang and Sima Yi were on the battlefield, Li Yan, who was in charge of transporting military grain in Sichuan, was punished by Zhu Geliang for fear that the grain was delayed. He falsely passed on the decree of the later Lord Liu Chan to ask Zhu Geliang to return. In addition, Zhugeliang had to withdraw his troops temporarily when the army ran out of grain. In this way, the promising fourth northern expedition was aborted.
In the spring of the 12th year of Jianxing (A.D. 234), Zhugeliang led another 100000 troops to go out of the valley from the Baoxie chute and occupy the wuzhangyuan (now the west side of the xiegukou in the southwest of Mei County, Shaanxi Province), holding his last northern expedition. However, after more than 100 days of confrontation with Sima Yi, Zhugeliang died of illness in the army on August 28 of the lunar calendar because of overwork at the age of 54. A generation of loyal ministers and good ministers died in their posts, the star of wisdom fell through the ages, and Zhugeliang’s dream of rejuvenation was never realized.
It is said that on the night of Zhugeliang’s death, there was a red meteor flowing from northeast to southwest, rising and falling in three places, and finally becoming smaller and throwing into Zhugeliang camp. This matter was first seen in Sun Sheng’s book “autumn in Jinyang” in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Today, a stone inlaid on the side wall of the main hall of Zhugeliang temple is said to be the meteorite of that meteor, which has been preserved by the residents of nearby Luoxing bay for generations. Is it a folk association or a coincidence of astronomical phenomena? This can only be left to astronomers to solve the mystery. However, this does not prevent people from calling Zhugeliang a “giant star” and calling Zhugeliang’s death “the fall of a big star”.
As for why Zhugeliang’s research ended, there are different opinions. Recent people call it tuberculosis, gastric cancer, or massive bleeding of gastric ulcer, which is actually based on “hematemesis”. See Wang Shen’s book of Wei for the matter of “hematemesis”, and it is said that “Liang Liang’s grain is poor, he is worried about hematemesis, burns camp and runs away overnight, and the Tao has a disease and death”. However, peisongzhi, who annotated the annals of the Three Kingdoms, has argued his falsehood. Peisongzhi said, “Liang was on the Weibin, and the Wei people crept up, and the shape of victory and defeat was immeasurable. The cloud ‘vomited blood’, which was boasted because Liang died. My husband vomited blood for Zhongda with Kongming’s strategy? When Liu Kun lost his master, he wrote with the Emperor of Jin and Yuan that he also said ‘the Liang army was defeated and vomited blood’, which is a false record. His cloud entered the valley and died, and he died because the Shu people entered the valley.”
Looking at Zhugeliang’s Northern Expedition, his footprints in Longyuan are mainly concentrated in today’s Tianshui and Longnan areas. Like Jianwei (near the present Xihe county), qishanbao, Lucheng (now Yanguan), tianshuiguan (north of today’s Shuizhen), Mumen Road (Mumen village of Mudan township), Xicheng (between Qishan and dabaozi), Shang (Qinzhou District of today’s Shuishi), Zhugeliang has experienced it personally and left many sites and legends. Such as the “Zhugeliang mount Horse Stone” and “ZHUGE Jiuzhai” (it is said that the Shu soldiers accumulated soil to fake grain piles), the “ZHUGE military base” in the east of Tianshui City, commonly known as Chen Jiamo (it is said that each Shu soldier held a handful of soil and piled it up), and the story of “Mumen Yabi” spread around Mumen village. As for Jieting (now Longcheng Town, Qin’an County), although Zhugeliang did not come personally, the defeat of the first northern expedition of the Shu army and Kongming’s “tear off Ma Su” are inseparable from the loss of Jieting. Therefore, today we need to trace Zhugeliang’s footprints in Longyuan. Of course, the Street Pavilion can’t be ignored.
“If you die before you leave, you will make the hero cry.” Zhugeliang’s failure to succeed in the northern expedition has brought permanent regret to the eternal heroes. But fortunately, he left his footprints on the land of Gansu, which will be recalled by later generations.